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GRAVITY(1) GeographicLib Utilities GRAVITY(1)
Gravity -- compute the earth's gravity field
Gravity [ -n name ] [ -d dir ] [ -G | -D | -A | -H ] [ -c lat h ] [ -w
] [ -p prec ] [ -v ] [ --comment-delimiter commentdelim ] [ --version |
-h | --help ] [ --input-file infile | --input-string instring ] [
--line-separator linesep ] [ --output-file outfile ]
Gravity reads in positions on standard input and prints out the
gravitational field on standard output.
The input line is of the form lat lon h. lat and lon are the latitude
and longitude expressed as decimal degrees or degrees, minutes, and
seconds; for details on the allowed formats for latitude and longitude,
see the "GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES" section of GeoConvert(1). h is the
height above the ellipsoid in meters; this quantity is optional and
defaults to 0. Alternatively, the gravity field can be computed at
various points on a circle of latitude (constant lat and h) via the -c
option; in this case only the longitude should be given on the input
lines. The quantities printed out are governed by the -G (default),
-D, -A, or -H options.
All the supported gravity models, except for grs80, use WGS84 as the
reference ellipsoid a = 6378137 m, f = 1/298.257223563, omega =
7292115e-11 rad/s, and GM = 3986004.418e8 m^3/s^2.
-n use gravity field model name instead of the default "egm96". See
-d read gravity models from dir instead of the default. See "MODELS".
-G compute the acceleration due to gravity (including the centrifugal
acceleration due the the earth's rotation) g. The output consists
of gx gy gz (all in m/s^2), where the x, y, and z components are in
easterly, northerly, and up directions, respectively. Usually gz
-D compute the gravity disturbance delta = g - gamma, where gamma is
the "normal" gravity due to the reference ellipsoid . The output
consists of deltax deltay deltaz (all in mGal, 1 mGal = 10^-5
m/s^2), where the x, y, and z components are in easterly,
northerly, and up directions, respectively. Note that deltax = gx,
because gammax = 0.
-A computes the gravitational anomaly. The output consists of 3 items
Dg01 xi eta, where Dg01 is in mGal (1 mGal = 10^-5 m/s^2) and xi
and eta are in arcseconds. The gravitational anomaly compares the
gravitational field g at P with the normal gravity gamma at Q where
the P is vertically above Q and the gravitational potential at P
equals the normal potential at Q. Dg01 gives the difference in the
magnitudes of these two vectors and xi and eta give the difference
in their directions (as northerly and easterly components). The
calculation uses a spherical approximation to match the results of
the NGA's synthesis programs.
-H compute the height of the geoid above the reference ellipsoid (in
meters). In this case, h should be zero. The results accurately
match the results of the NGA's synthesis programs. GeoidEval(1)
can compute geoid heights much more quickly by interpolating on a
grid of precomputed results; however the results from GeoidEval(1)
are only accurate to a few millimeters.
-c evaluate the field on a circle of latitude given by lat and h
instead of reading these quantities from the input lines. In this
case, Gravity can calculate the field considerably more quickly.
If geoid heights are being computed (the -H option), then h must be
-w on input and output, longitude precedes latitude (except that on
input this can be overridden by a hemisphere designator, N, S, E,
-p set the output precision to prec. By default prec is 5 for
acceleration due to gravity, 3 for the gravity disturbance and
anomaly, and 4 for the geoid height.
-v print information about the gravity model on standard error before
processing the input.
set the comment delimiter to commentdelim (e.g., "#" or "//"). If
set, the input lines will be scanned for this delimiter and, if
found, the delimiter and the rest of the line will be removed prior
to processing and subsequently appended to the output line
(separated by a space).
print version and exit.
-h print usage, the default gravity path and name, and exit.
print full documentation and exit.
read input from the file infile instead of from standard input; a
file name of "-" stands for standard input.
read input from the string instring instead of from standard input.
All occurrences of the line separator character (default is a
semicolon) in instring are converted to newlines before the reading
set the line separator character to linesep. By default this is a
write output to the file outfile instead of to standard output; a
file name of "-" stands for standard output.
Gravity computes the gravity field using one of the following models
egm84, earth gravity model 1984. See
egm96, earth gravity model 1996. See
egm2008, earth gravity model 2008. See
wgs84, world geodetic system 1984. This returns the normal
gravity for the WGS84 ellipsoid.
grs80, geodetic reference system 1980. This returns the normal
gravity for the GRS80 ellipsoid.
These models approximate the gravitation field above the surface of the
earth. By default, the "egm96" gravity model is used. This may
changed by setting the environment variable
"GEOGRAPHICLIB_GRAVITY_NAME" or with the -n option.
The gravity models will be loaded from a directory specified at compile
time. This may changed by setting the environment variables
"GEOGRAPHICLIB_GRAVITY_PATH" or "GEOGRAPHICLIB_DATA", or with the -d
option. The -h option prints the default gravity path and name. Use
the -v option to ascertain the full path name of the data file.
Instructions for downloading and installing gravity models are
Override the compile-time default gravity name of "egm96". The -h
option reports the value of GEOGRAPHICLIB_GRAVITY_NAME, if defined,
otherwise it reports the compile-time value. If the -n name option
is used, then name takes precedence.
Override the compile-time default gravity path. This is typically
"/usr/local/share/GeographicLib/gravity" on Unix-like systems and
"C:/ProgramData/GeographicLib/gravity" on Windows systems. The -h
option reports the value of GEOGRAPHICLIB_GRAVITY_PATH, if defined,
otherwise it reports the compile-time value. If the -d dir option
is used, then dir takes precedence.
Another way of overriding the compile-time default gravity path.
If it is set (and if GEOGRAPHICLIB_GRAVITY_PATH is not set), then
$GEOGRAPHICLIB_DATA/gravity is used.
An illegal line of input will print an error message to standard output
beginning with "ERROR:" and causes Gravity to return an exit code of 1.
However, an error does not cause Gravity to terminate; following lines
will be converted.
The gravity field from EGM2008 at the top of Mount Everest
echo 27:59:17N 86:55:32E 8820 | Gravity -n egm2008
=> -0.00001 0.00103 -9.76782
GeoConvert(1), GeoidEval(1), geographiclib-get-gravity(8).
Gravity was written by Charles Karney.
Gravity was added to GeographicLib, <http://geographiclib.sf.net>, in
GeographicLib 1.45 2015-09-30 GRAVITY(1)