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AB(1)				      ab				 AB(1)


ab - Apache HTTP server benchmarking tool


ab [ -A auth-username:password ] [ -b windowsize ] [ -B local-address ] [ -c concurrency ] [ -C cookie-name=value ] [ -d ] [ -e csv-file ] [ -E client-certificate file ] [ -f protocol ] [ -g gnuplot-file ] [ -h ] [ -H custom-header ] [ -i ] [ -k ] [ -l ] [ -m HTTP-method ] [ -n requests ] [ -p POST-file ] [ -P proxy-auth-username:password ] [ -q ] [ -r ] [ -s timeout ] [ -S ] [ -t timelimit ] [ -T content-type ] [ -u PUT-file ] [ -v verbosity] [ -V ] [ -w ] [ -x <table>-attributes ] [ -X proxy[:port] ] [ -y <tr>-attributes ] [ -z <td>-attributes ] [ -Z ciphersuite ] [http[s]://]hostname[:port]/path


ab is a tool for benchmarking your Apache Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server. It is designed to give you an impression of how your current Apache installation performs. This especially shows you how many requests per second your Apache installation is capable of serv- ing.


-A auth-username:password Supply BASIC Authentication credentials to the server. The user- name and password are separated by a single : and sent on the wire base64 encoded. The string is sent regardless of whether the server needs it (i.e., has sent an 401 authentication needed). -b windowsize Size of TCP send/receive buffer, in bytes. -B local-address Address to bind to when making outgoing connections. -c concurrency Number of multiple requests to perform at a time. Default is one request at a time. -C cookie-name=value Add a Cookie: line to the request. The argument is typically in the form of a name=value pair. This field is repeatable. -d Do not display the "percentage served within XX [ms] table". (legacy support). -e csv-file Write a Comma separated value (CSV) file which contains for each percentage (from 1% to 100%) the time (in milliseconds) it took to serve that percentage of the requests. This is usually more useful than the 'gnuplot' file; as the results are already 'binned'. -E client-certificate-file When connecting to an SSL website, use the provided client cer- tificate in PEM format to authenticate with the server. The file is expected to contain the client certificate, followed by intermediate certificates, followed by the private key. Avail- able in 2.4.36 and later. -f protocol Specify SSL/TLS protocol (SSL2, SSL3, TLS1, TLS1.1, TLS1.2, or ALL). TLS1.1 and TLS1.2 support available in 2.4.4 and later. -g gnuplot-file Write all measured values out as a 'gnuplot' or TSV (Tab sepa- rate values) file. This file can easily be imported into pack- ages like Gnuplot, IDL, Mathematica, Igor or even Excel. The labels are on the first line of the file. -h Display usage information. -H custom-header Append extra headers to the request. The argument is typically in the form of a valid header line, containing a colon-separated field-value pair (i.e., "Accept-Encoding: zip/zop;8bit"). -i Do HEAD requests instead of GET. -k Enable the HTTP KeepAlive feature, i.e., perform multiple requests within one HTTP session. Default is no KeepAlive. -l Do not report errors if the length of the responses is not con- stant. This can be useful for dynamic pages. Available in 2.4.7 and later. -m HTTP-method Custom HTTP method for the requests. Available in 2.4.10 and later. -n requests Number of requests to perform for the benchmarking session. The default is to just perform a single request which usually leads to non-representative benchmarking results. -p POST-file File containing data to POST. Remember to also set -T. -P proxy-auth-username:password Supply BASIC Authentication credentials to a proxy en-route. The username and password are separated by a single : and sent on the wire base64 encoded. The string is sent regardless of whether the proxy needs it (i.e., has sent an 407 proxy authen- tication needed). -q When processing more than 150 requests, ab outputs a progress count on stderr every 10% or 100 requests or so. The -q flag will suppress these messages. -r Don't exit on socket receive errors. -s timeout Maximum number of seconds to wait before the socket times out. Default is 30 seconds. Available in 2.4.4 and later. -S Do not display the median and standard deviation values, nor display the warning/error messages when the average and median are more than one or two times the standard deviation apart. And default to the min/avg/max values. (legacy support). -t timelimit Maximum number of seconds to spend for benchmarking. This implies a -n 50000 internally. Use this to benchmark the server within a fixed total amount of time. Per default there is no timelimit. -T content-type Content-type header to use for POST/PUT data, eg. application/x- www-form-urlencoded. Default is text/plain. -u PUT-file File containing data to PUT. Remember to also set -T. -v verbosity Set verbosity level - 4 and above prints information on headers, 3 and above prints response codes (404, 200, etc.), 2 and above prints warnings and info. -V Display version number and exit. -w Print out results in HTML tables. Default table is two columns wide, with a white background. -x <table>-attributes String to use as attributes for <table>. Attributes are inserted <table here >. -X proxy[:port] Use a proxy server for the requests. -y <tr>-attributes String to use as attributes for <tr>. -z <td>-attributes String to use as attributes for <td>. -Z ciphersuite Specify SSL/TLS cipher suite (See openssl ciphers)


The following list describes the values returned by ab: Server Software The value, if any, returned in the server HTTP header of the first successful response. This includes all characters in the header from beginning to the point a character with decimal value of 32 (most notably: a space or CR/LF) is detected. Server Hostname The DNS or IP address given on the command line Server Port The port to which ab is connecting. If no port is given on the command line, this will default to 80 for http and 443 for https. SSL/TLS Protocol The protocol parameters negotiated between the client and server. This will only be printed if SSL is used. Document Path The request URI parsed from the command line string. Document Length This is the size in bytes of the first successfully returned document. If the document length changes during testing, the response is considered an error. Concurrency Level The number of concurrent clients used during the test Time taken for tests This is the time taken from the moment the first socket connec- tion is created to the moment the last response is received Complete requests The number of successful responses received Failed requests The number of requests that were considered a failure. If the number is greater than zero, another line will be printed show- ing the number of requests that failed due to connecting, read- ing, incorrect content length, or exceptions. Write errors The number of errors that failed during write (broken pipe). Non-2xx responses The number of responses that were not in the 200 series of response codes. If all responses were 200, this field is not printed. Keep-Alive requests The number of connections that resulted in Keep-Alive requests Total body sent If configured to send data as part of the test, this is the total number of bytes sent during the tests. This field is omit- ted if the test did not include a body to send. Total transferred The total number of bytes received from the server. This number is essentially the number of bytes sent over the wire. HTML transferred The total number of document bytes received from the server. This number excludes bytes received in HTTP headers Requests per second This is the number of requests per second. This value is the result of dividing the number of requests by the total time taken Time per request The average time spent per request. The first value is calcu- lated with the formula concurrency * timetaken * 1000 / done while the second value is calculated with the formula timetaken * 1000 / done Transfer rate The rate of transfer as calculated by the formula totalread / 1024 / timetaken


There are various statically declared buffers of fixed length. Combined with the lazy parsing of the command line arguments, the response head- ers from the server and other external inputs, this might bite you. It does not implement HTTP/1.x fully; only accepts some 'expected' forms of responses. The rather heavy use of strstr(3) shows up top in profile, which might indicate a performance problem; i.e., you would measure the ab performance rather than the server's. Apache HTTP Server 2018-10-10 AB(1)

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