DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
CRYPT(3) DragonFly Library Functions Manual CRYPT(3)
crypt, encrypt, setkey - Trapdoor encryption
Crypt Library (libcrypt, -lcrypt)
crypt(const char *key, const char *salt);
const char *
crypt_set_format(const char *string);
encrypt(char *block, int flag);
setkey(const char *key);
The crypt() function performs password hashing with additional code added
to deter key search attempts. Different algorithms can be used to in the
hash. Currently these include the NBS Data Encryption Standard (DES),
MD5, SHA256, SHA512 and Blowfish. The algorithm used will depend upon
the format of the Salt (following the Modular Crypt Format (MCF)), if DES
and/or Blowfish is installed or not, and whether crypt_set_format() has
been called to change the default.
The first argument to crypt is the data to hash (usually a password), in
a null-terminated string. The second is the salt, in one of three forms:
Extended If it begins with an underscore ("_") then the DES
Extended Format is used in interpreting both the key
and the salt, as outlined below.
Modular If it begins with the string "$digit$" then the
Modular Crypt Format is used, as outlined below.
Traditional If neither of the above is true, it assumes the
Traditional Format, using the entire string as the
salt (or the first portion).
All routines are designed to be time-consuming. A brief test on a
Pentium 166/MMX shows the DES crypt to do approximately 2640 crypts a CPU
second and MD5 to do about 62 crypts a CPU second.
DES Extended Format:
The key is divided into groups of 8 characters (the last group is null-
padded) and the low-order 7 bits of each character (56 bits per group)
are used to form the DES key as follows: the first group of 56 bits
becomes the initial DES key. For each additional group, the XOR of the
encryption of the current DES key with itself and the group bits becomes
the next DES key.
The salt is a 9-character array consisting of an underscore followed by 4
bytes of iteration count and 4 bytes of salt. These are encoded as
printable characters, 6 bits per character, least significant character
first. The values 0 to 63 are encoded as ``./0-9A-Za-z''. This allows
24 bits for both count and salt.
The salt introduces disorder in the DES algorithm in one of 16777216 or
4096 possible ways (ie. with 24 or 12 bits: if bit i of the salt is set,
then bits i and i+24 are swapped in the DES E-box output).
The DES key is used to encrypt a 64-bit constant using count iterations
of DES. The value returned is a null-terminated string, 20 or 13 bytes
(plus null) in length, consisting of the salt followed by the encoded
The functions encrypt(), setkey() allow limited access to the DES
algorithm itself. The key argument to setkey() is a 64 character array
of binary values (numeric 0 or 1). A 56-bit key is derived from this
array by dividing the array into groups of 8 and ignoring the last bit in
The encrypt() argument block is also a 64 character array of binary
values. If the value of flag is 0, the argument block is encrypted,
otherwise it is decrypted. The encryption or decryption is returned in
the original array block after using the key specified by setkey() to
If the salt begins with the string $digit$ then the Modular Crypt Format
is used. The digit represents which algorithm is used in encryption.
Following the token is the actual salt to use in the encryption. The
length of the salt is limited to 8 characters--because the length of the
returned output is also limited (_PASSWORD_LEN). The salt must be
terminated with the end of the string (NULL) or a dollar sign. Any
characters after the dollar sign are ignored.
Currently supported algorithms are:
3. SHA256 deprecated implementation
4. SHA512 deprecated implementation
Other crypt formats may be easily added. An example salt would be:
The algorithm used will depend upon whether crypt_set_format() has been
called and whether a global default format has been specified. Unless a
global default has been specified or crypt_set_format() has set the
format to something else, the built-in default format is used. This is
currently DES if it is available, or MD5 if not.
How the salt is used will depend upon the algorithm for the hash. For
best results, specify at least two characters of salt.
The crypt_get_format() function returns a constant string that represents
the name of the algorithm currently used. Valid values are `des', `blf',
`sha256', `sha512' and `md5'.
The crypt_set_format() function sets the default encoding format
according to the supplied string.
The global default format can be set using the /etc/auth.conf file using
the crypt_default property.
crypt() returns a pointer to the encrypted value on success, and NULL on
failure. Note: this is not a standard behaviour, AT&T crypt() will
always return a pointer to a string.
crypt_set_format() will return 1 if the supplied encoding format was
valid. Otherwise, a value of 0 is returned.
login(1), passwd(1), auth_getval(3), cipher(3), getpass(3), auth.conf(5),
A rotor-based crypt() function appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX. The
current style crypt() first appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.
The DES section of the code (FreeSec 1.0) was developed outside the
United States of America as an unencumbered replacement for the U.S.-only
NetBSD libcrypt encryption library.
Originally written by David Burren <email@example.com>, later additions
and changes by Poul-Henning Kamp, Mark R V Murray, Kris Kennaway, Brian
Feldman, Paul Herman and Niels Provos.
The crypt() function returns a pointer to static data, and subsequent
calls to crypt() will modify the same data. Likewise, crypt_set_format()
modifies static data.
DragonFly 5.5-DEVELOPMENT April 24, 2019 DragonFly 5.5-DEVELOPMENT