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cups(1)                          OpenPrinting                          cups(1)

NAME

cups - a standards-based, open source printing system

DESCRIPTION

CUPS is the software you use to print from applications like word processors, email readers, photo editors, and web browsers. It converts the page descriptions produced by your application (put a paragraph here, draw a line there, and so forth) into something your printer can understand and then sends the information to the printer for printing. Now, since every printer manufacturer does things differently, printing can be very complicated. CUPS does its best to hide this from you and your application so that you can concentrate on printing and less on how to print. Generally, the only time you need to know anything about your printer is when you use it for the first time, and even then CUPS can often figure things out on its own. HOW DOES IT WORK? The first time you print to a printer, CUPS creates a queue to keep track of the current status of the printer (everything OK, out of paper, etc.) and any pages you have printed. Most of the time the queue points to a printer connected directly to your computer via a USB port, however it can also point to a printer on your network, a printer on the Internet, or multiple printers depending on the configuration. Regardless of where the queue points, it will look like any other printer to you and your applications. Every time you print something, CUPS creates a job which contains the queue you are sending the print to, the name of the document you are printing, and the page descriptions. Job are numbered (queue-1, queue-2, and so forth) so you can monitor the job as it is printed or cancel it if you see a mistake. When CUPS gets a job for printing, it determines the best programs (filters, printer drivers, port monitors, and backends) to convert the pages into a printable format and then runs them to actually print the job. When the print job is completely printed, CUPS removes the job from the queue and moves on to any other jobs you have submitted. You can also be notified when the job is finished, or if there are any errors during printing, in several different ways. WHERE DO I BEGIN? The easiest way to start is by using the web interface to configure your printer. Go to "http://localhost:631" and choose the Administration tab at the top of the page. Click/press on the Add Printer button and follow the prompts. When you are asked for a username and password, enter your login username and password or the "root" username and password. After the printer is added you will be asked to set the default printer options (paper size, output mode, etc.) for the printer. Make any changes as needed and then click/press on the Set Default Options button to save them. Some printers also support auto-configuration - click/press on the Query Printer for Default Options button to update the options automatically. Once you have added the printer, you can print to it from any application. You can also choose Print Test Page from the maintenance menu to print a simple test page and verify that everything is working properly. You can also use the lpadmin(8) and lpinfo(8) commands to add printers to CUPS. Additionally, your operating system may include graphical user interfaces or automatically create printer queues when you connect a printer to your computer. HOW DO I GET HELP? The OpenPrinting CUPS web site (https://openprinting.github.io/cups) provides access to the cups and cups-devel mailing lists, additional documentation and resources, and a bug report database. Most vendors also provide online discussion forums to ask printing questions for your operating system of choice.

ENVIRONMENT

CUPS commands use the following environment variables to override the default locations of files and so forth. For security reasons, these environment variables are ignored for setuid programs: CUPS_ANYROOT Whether to allow any X.509 certificate root (Y or N). CUPS_CACHEDIR The directory where semi-persistent cache files can be found. CUPS_DATADIR The directory where data files can be found. CUPS_ENCRYPTION The default level of encryption (Always, IfRequested, Never, Required). CUPS_EXPIREDCERTS Whether to allow expired X.509 certificates (Y or N). CUPS_GSSSERVICENAME The Kerberos service name used for authentication. CUPS_SERVER The hostname/IP address and port number of the CUPS scheduler (hostname:port or ipaddress:port). CUPS_SERVERBIN The directory where server helper programs, filters, backend, etc. can be found. CUPS_SERVERROOT The root directory of the server. CUPS_STATEDIR The directory where state files can be found. CUPS_USER Specifies the name of the user for print requests. HOME Specifies the home directory of the current user. IPP_PORT Specifies the default port number for IPP requests. LOCALEDIR Specifies the location of localization files. LPDEST Specifies the default print queue (System V standard). PRINTER Specifies the default print queue (Berkeley standard). TMPDIR Specifies the location of temporary files.

FILES

~/.cups/client.conf ~/.cups/lpoptions

CONFORMING TO

CUPS conforms to the Internet Printing Protocol version 2.1 and implements the Berkeley and System V UNIX print commands.

NOTES

CUPS printer drivers, backends, and PPD files are deprecated and will no longer be supported in a future feature release of CUPS. Printers that do not support IPP can be supported using applications such as ippeveprinter(1).

SEE ALSO

cancel(1), client.conf(5), cupsctl(8), cupsd(8), lp(1), lpadmin(8), lpinfo(8), lpoptions(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), lpq(1), lpstat(1), CUPS Online Help (http://localhost:631/help), OpenPrinting CUPS Web Site (https://openprinting.github.io/cups), PWG Internet Printing Protocol Workgroup (http://www.pwg.org/ipp)

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2021-2022 by OpenPrinting. 2021-02-28 CUPS cups(1) cups-snmp(8) OpenPrinting cups-snmp(8)

NAME

snmp - cups snmp backend (deprecated)

SYNOPSIS

/usr/lib/cups/backend/snmp ip-address-or-hostname /usr/libexec/cups/backend/snmp ip-address-or-hostname lpinfo -v --include-schemes snmp

DESCRIPTION

The DEPRECATED CUPS SNMP backend provides legacy discovery and identification of network printers using SNMPv1. When used for discovery through the scheduler, the backend will list all printers that respond to a broadcast SNMPv1 query with the "public" community name. Additional queries are then sent to printers that respond in order to determine the correct device URI, make and model, and other information needed for printing. In the first form, the SNMP backend is run directly by the user to look up the device URI and other information when you have an IP address or hostname. This can be used for programs that need to configure print queues where the user has supplied an address but nothing else. In the second form, the SNMP backend is run indirectly using the lpinfo(8) command. The output provides all printers detected via SNMP on the configured broadcast addresses. Note: no broadcast addresses are configured by default.

ENVIRONMENT

The DebugLevel value can be overridden using the CUPS_DEBUG_LEVEL environment variable. The MaxRunTime value can be overridden using the CUPS_MAX_RUN_TIME environment variable.

FILES

The SNMP backend reads the /usr/local/etc/cups/snmp.conf configuration file, if present, to set the default broadcast address, community name, and logging level.

NOTES

The CUPS SNMP backend is deprecated and will no longer be supported in a future version of CUPS.

CONFORMING TO

The CUPS SNMP backend uses the information from the Host, Printer, and Port Monitor MIBs along with some vendor private MIBs and intelligent port probes to determine the correct device URI and make and model for each printer.

SEE ALSO

backend(7), cups-snmp.conf(5), cupsd(8), lpinfo(8), CUPS Online Help (http://localhost:631/help)

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2021-2022 by OpenPrinting. 2021-02-28 CUPS cups-snmp(8)

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