DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
cups(1) OpenPrinting cups(1)
cups - a standards-based, open source printing system
CUPS is the software you use to print from applications like word
processors, email readers, photo editors, and web browsers. It converts
the page descriptions produced by your application (put a paragraph
here, draw a line there, and so forth) into something your printer can
understand and then sends the information to the printer for printing.
Now, since every printer manufacturer does things differently, printing
can be very complicated. CUPS does its best to hide this from you and
your application so that you can concentrate on printing and less on
how to print. Generally, the only time you need to know anything about
your printer is when you use it for the first time, and even then CUPS
can often figure things out on its own.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
The first time you print to a printer, CUPS creates a queue to keep
track of the current status of the printer (everything OK, out of
paper, etc.) and any pages you have printed. Most of the time the queue
points to a printer connected directly to your computer via a USB port,
however it can also point to a printer on your network, a printer on
the Internet, or multiple printers depending on the configuration.
Regardless of where the queue points, it will look like any other
printer to you and your applications.
Every time you print something, CUPS creates a job which contains the
queue you are sending the print to, the name of the document you are
printing, and the page descriptions. Job are numbered (queue-1,
queue-2, and so forth) so you can monitor the job as it is printed or
cancel it if you see a mistake. When CUPS gets a job for printing, it
determines the best programs (filters, printer drivers, port monitors,
and backends) to convert the pages into a printable format and then
runs them to actually print the job.
When the print job is completely printed, CUPS removes the job from the
queue and moves on to any other jobs you have submitted. You can also
be notified when the job is finished, or if there are any errors during
printing, in several different ways.
WHERE DO I BEGIN?
The easiest way to start is by using the web interface to configure
your printer. Go to "http://localhost:631" and choose the
Administration tab at the top of the page. Click/press on the Add
Printer button and follow the prompts.
When you are asked for a username and password, enter your login
username and password or the "root" username and password.
After the printer is added you will be asked to set the default printer
options (paper size, output mode, etc.) for the printer. Make any
changes as needed and then click/press on the Set Default Options
button to save them. Some printers also support auto-configuration -
click/press on the Query Printer for Default Options button to update
the options automatically.
Once you have added the printer, you can print to it from any
application. You can also choose Print Test Page from the maintenance
menu to print a simple test page and verify that everything is working
You can also use the lpadmin(8) and lpinfo(8) commands to add printers
to CUPS. Additionally, your operating system may include graphical
user interfaces or automatically create printer queues when you connect
a printer to your computer.
HOW DO I GET HELP?
The OpenPrinting CUPS web site (https://openprinting.github.io/cups)
provides access to the cups and cups-devel mailing lists, additional
documentation and resources, and a bug report database. Most vendors
also provide online discussion forums to ask printing questions for
your operating system of choice.
CUPS commands use the following environment variables to override the
default locations of files and so forth. For security reasons, these
environment variables are ignored for setuid programs:
Whether to allow any X.509 certificate root (Y or N).
The directory where semi-persistent cache files can be found.
The directory where data files can be found.
The default level of encryption (Always, IfRequested, Never,
Whether to allow expired X.509 certificates (Y or N).
The Kerberos service name used for authentication.
The hostname/IP address and port number of the CUPS scheduler
(hostname:port or ipaddress:port).
The directory where server helper programs, filters, backend, etc.
can be found.
The root directory of the server.
The directory where state files can be found.
Specifies the name of the user for print requests.
HOME Specifies the home directory of the current user.
Specifies the default port number for IPP requests.
Specifies the location of localization files.
Specifies the default print queue (System V standard).
Specifies the default print queue (Berkeley standard).
Specifies the location of temporary files.
CUPS conforms to the Internet Printing Protocol version 2.1 and
implements the Berkeley and System V UNIX print commands.
CUPS printer drivers, backends, and PPD files are deprecated and will
no longer be supported in a future feature release of CUPS. Printers
that do not support IPP can be supported using applications such as
cancel(1), client.conf(5), cupsctl(8), cupsd(8), lp(1), lpadmin(8),
lpinfo(8), lpoptions(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), lpq(1), lpstat(1), CUPS
Online Help (http://localhost:631/help), OpenPrinting CUPS Web Site
(https://openprinting.github.io/cups), PWG Internet Printing Protocol
Copyright (C) 2021-2022 by OpenPrinting.
2021-02-28 CUPS cups(1)
snmp.conf(5) OpenPrinting snmp.conf(5)
snmp.conf - snmp configuration file for cups (deprecated)
The snmp.conf file configures how the standard CUPS network backends
(http, https, ipp, ipps, lpd, snmp, and socket) access printer
information using SNMPv1 and is normally located in the
/usr/local/etc/cups directory. Each line in the file can be a
configuration directive, a blank line, or a comment. Comment lines
start with the # character.
The Community and DebugLevel directives are used by all backends. The
remainder apply only to the SNMP backend - cups-snmp(8).
The following directives are understood by the CUPS network backends:
Sends SNMP broadcast queries (for discovery) to the specified
address(es). There is no default for the broadcast address.
Specifies the community name to use. Only a single community name
may be specified. The default community name is "public". If no
name is specified, all SNMP functions are disabled.
Specifies the logging level from 0 (none) to 3 (everything).
Typically only used for debugging (thus the name). The default
debug level is 0.
DeviceURI "regular expression" device-uri [... device-uri]
Specifies one or more device URIs that should be used for a given
make and model string. The regular expression is used to match
the detected make and model, and the device URI strings must be of
the form "scheme://%s[:port]/[path]", where "%s" represents the
detected address or hostname. There are no default device URI
Specifies whether the addresses of printers should be converted to
hostnames or left as numeric IP addresses. The default is "off".
Specifies the maximum number of seconds that the SNMP backend will
scan the network for printers. The default is 120 seconds (2
CUPS backends are deprecated and will no longer be supported in a
future feature release of CUPS. Printers that do not support IPP can
be supported using applications such as ippeveprinter(1).
cups-snmp(8), CUPS Online Help (http://localhost:631/help)
Copyright (C) 2021-2022 by OpenPrinting.
2021-02-28 CUPS snmp.conf(5)