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DICT(1)                                                                DICT(1)

NAME

dict - DICT Protocol Client

SYNOPSIS

dict word dict [options] [word] dict [options] dict://host:port/d:word:database dict [options] dict://host:port/m:word:database:strategy

DESCRIPTION

dict is a client for the Dictionary Server Protocol (DICT), a TCP transaction based query/response protocol that provides access to dictionary definitions from a set of natural language dictionary databases. Exit status is 0 if operation succeeded, or non-zero otherwise. See EXIT STATUS section.

OPTIONS

-h server or --host server Specifies the hostname for the DICT server. Server/port combinations can be specified in the configuration file. If no servers are specified in the configuration file or or on the command line, dict will fail. (This is a compile-time option, ./configure --enable-dictorg, which is disabled by default.) If IP lookup for a server expands to a list of IP addresses (as dict.org does currently), then each IP will be tried in the order listed. -p service or --port service Specifies the port (e.g., 2628) or service (e.g., dict) for connections. The default is 2628, as specified in the DICT Protocol RFC. Server/port combinations can be specified in the configuration file. -d dbname or --database dbname Specifies a specific database to search. The default is to search all databases (a "*" from the DICT protocol). Note that a "!" in the DICT protocol means to search all of the databases until a match is found, and then stop searching. -m or --match Instead of printing a definition, perform a match using the specified strategy. -s strategy or --strategy strategy Specify a matching strategy. By default, the server default match strategy is used. This is usually "exact" for definitions, and some form of spelling-correction strategy for matches ("." from the DICT protocol). The available strategies are dependent on the server implementation. For a list of available strategies, see the -S or --strats option. -C or --nocorrect Usually, if a definition is requested and the word cannot be found, spelling correction is requested from the server, and a list of possible words are provided. This option disables the generation of this list. -c file or --config file Specify the configuration file. The default is to try ~/.dictrc and /usr/local/etc/dict.conf, using the first file that exists. If a specific configuration file is specified, then the defaults will not be tried. -D or --dbs Query the server and display a list of available databases. -S or --strats Query the server and display a list of available search strategies. -H or --serverhelp Query the server and display the help information that it provides. -i dbname or --info dbname Request information on the specified database (usually the server will provide origination, descriptive, or other information about the database or its contents). -I or --serverinfo Query the server and display information about the server. -M or --mime Send OPTION MIME command to the server. NOTE: Server's capabilities are not checked. -f or --formatted Enables formatted output, i.e. output convenient for postprocessing by standard UNIX utilities. No, it is not XML ;-) Also error and warning messages like " No matches...", " Invalid strategy..." etc. are sent to stderr, not to stdout. Format: -I, -i, -H and similar: host<TAB>port <SPC><SPC>line1 <SPC><SPC>line2 ... -S: host<TAB>port<TAB>strategy1<TAB>short description1 host<TAB>port<TAB>strategy2<TAB>short description2 ... -D: host<TAB>port<TAB>database1<TAB>database description1 host<TAB>port<TAB>database2<TAB>database description2 ... -m: host<TAB>port<TAB>database1<TAB>match1 host<TAB>port<TAB>database2<TAB>match2 ... -a or --noauth Disable authentication (i.e., don't send an AUTH command). -u user or --user user Specifies the username for authentication. -k key or --key key Specifies the shared secret for authentication. -V or --version Display version information. -L or --license Display copyright and license information. --help Display help information. -v or --verbose Be verbose. -r or --raw Be very verbose: show the raw client/server interaction. --pipesize Specify the buffer size for pipelineing commands. The default is 256, which should be sufficient for general tasks and be below the MTU for most transport media. Larger values may provide faster or slower throughput, depending on MTU. If the buffer is too small, requests will be serialized. Values less than 0 and greater than one million are silently changed to something more reasonable. --client text Specifies additional text to be sent using the CLIENT command. --debug flag Set a debugging flag. Valid flags are: verbose The same as -v or --verbose. raw The same as -r or --raw. scan Debug the scanner for the configuration file. parse Debug the parser for the configuration file. pipe Debug TCP pipelining support (see the DICT RFC and RFC1854). serial Disable pipelining support. time Perform transaction timing.

CONFIGURATION

The configuration file currently has a very simple format. Lines are used to specify servers, for example: server dict.org or, with options: server dict.org { port 8080 } server dict.org { user username secret } server dict.org { port dict user username secret } the port and user options may be specified in any order. The port option is used to specify an optional port (e.g., 2628) or service (e.g., dict) for the TCP/IP connection. The user option is used to specify a username and shared secret to be used for authentication to this particular server. Servers are tried in the order listed until a connection is made. If none of the specified servers are available, and the compile-time option (./configure --enable-dictorg) is enabled, then an attempt will be made to connect on localhost and on dict.org at the standard part (2628). (This option is disabled by default.) We expect that dict.org will point to one or more DICT servers (perhaps in round-robin fashion) for the foreseeable future (starting in July 1997), although it is difficult to predict anything on the Internet for more than about 3-6 months.

EXIT STATUS

0 Successful completion 20 No matches found 21 Approximate matches found 22 No databases available 23 No strategies available 30 Unexpected response code from server 31 Server is temporarily unavailable 32 Server is shutting down 33 Syntax error, command not recognized 34 Syntax error, illegal parameters 35 Command not implemented 36 Command parameter not implemented 37 Access denied 38 Authentication failed 39 Invalid database 40 Invalid strategy 41 Connection to server failed

CREDITS

dict was written by Rik Faith (faith@cs.unc.edu) and is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License. If you need to distribute under other terms, write to the author. The main libraries used by this programs (zlib, regex, libmaa) are distributed under different terms, so you may be able to use the libraries for applications which are incompatible with the GPL -- please see the copyright notices and license information that come with the libraries for more information, and consult with your attorney to resolve these issues.

BUGS

If a dict: URL is given on the command line, only the first one is used. The rest are ignored. If a dict: URL contains a specifier for the nth definition or match of a word, it will be ignored and all the definitions or matches will be provided. This violates the RFC, and will be corrected in a future release. If a dict: URL contains a shared secret, it will not be parsed correctly. When OPTION MIME command is sent to the server (-M option) , server's capabilities are not checked.

FILES

~/.dictrc User's dict configuration file /usr/local/etc/dict.conf System dict configuration file

SEE ALSO

dictd(8), dictzip(1), http://www.dict.org, RFC 2229 15 February 1998 DICT(1) dict(n) Tcl Built-In Commands dict(n) ______________________________________________________________________________

NAME

dict - Manipulate dictionaries

SYNOPSIS

dict option arg ?arg ...? ______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION

Performs one of several operations on dictionary values or variables containing dictionary values (see the DICTIONARY VALUES section below for a description), depending on option. The legal options (which may be abbreviated) are: dict append dictionaryVariable key ?string ...? This appends the given string (or strings) to the value that the given key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty string. The updated dictionary value is returned. dict create ?key value ...? Return a new dictionary that contains each of the key/value mappings listed as arguments (keys and values alternating, with each key being followed by its associated value.) dict exists dictionaryValue key ?key ...? This returns a boolean value indicating whether the given key (or path of keys through a set of nested dictionaries) exists in the given dictionary value. This returns a true value exactly when dict get on that path will succeed. dict filter dictionaryValue filterType arg ?arg ...? This takes a dictionary value and returns a new dictionary that contains just those key/value pairs that match the specified filter type (which may be abbreviated.) Supported filter types are: dict filter dictionaryValue key ?globPattern ...? The key rule only matches those key/value pairs whose | keys match any of the given patterns (in the style of | string match.) dict filter dictionaryValue script {keyVariable valueVariable} script The script rule tests for matching by assigning the key to the keyVariable and the value to the valueVariable, and then evaluating the given script which should return a boolean value (with the key/value pair only being included in the result of the dict filter when a true value is returned.) Note that the first argument after the rule selection word is a two-element list. If the script returns with a condition of TCL_BREAK, no further key/value pairs are considered for inclusion in the resulting dictionary, and a condition of TCL_CONTINUE is equivalent to a false result. The key/value pairs are tested in the order in which the keys were inserted into the dictionary. dict filter dictionaryValue value ?globPattern ...? The value rule only matches those key/value pairs whose | values match any of the given patterns (in the style of | string match.) dict for {keyVariable valueVariable} dictionaryValue body This command takes three arguments, the first a two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across, and the third a script to be evaluated for each mapping with the key and value variables set appropriately (in the manner of foreach.) The result of the command is an empty string. If any evaluation of the body generates a TCL_BREAK result, no further pairs from the dictionary will be iterated over and the dict for command will terminate successfully immediately. If any evaluation of the body generates a TCL_CONTINUE result, this shall be treated exactly like a normal TCL_OK result. The order of iteration is the order in which the keys were inserted into the dictionary. dict get dictionaryValue ?key ...? Given a dictionary value (first argument) and a key (second argument), this will retrieve the value for that key. Where several keys are supplied, the behaviour of the command shall be as if the result of dict get $dictVal $key was passed as the first argument to dict get with the remaining arguments as second (and possibly subsequent) arguments. This facilitates lookups in nested dictionaries. For example, the following two commands are equivalent: dict get $dict foo bar spong dict get [dict get [dict get $dict foo] bar] spong If no keys are provided, dict get will return a list containing pairs of elements in a manner similar to array get. That is, the first element of each pair would be the key and the second element would be the value for that key. It is an error to attempt to retrieve a value for a key that is not present in the dictionary. dict incr dictionaryVariable key ?increment? This adds the given increment value (an integer that defaults to 1 if not specified) to the value that the given key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non- existent keys are treated as if they map to 0. It is an error to increment a value for an existing key if that value is not an integer. The updated dictionary value is returned. dict info dictionaryValue This returns information (intended for display to people) about the given dictionary though the format of this data is dependent on the implementation of the dictionary. For dictionaries that are implemented by hash tables, it is expected that this will return the string produced by Tcl_HashStats, similar to array statistics. dict keys dictionaryValue ?globPattern? Return a list of all keys in the given dictionary value. If a pattern is supplied, only those keys that match it (according to the rules of string match) will be returned. The returned keys will be in the order that they were inserted into the dictionary. dict lappend dictionaryVariable key ?value ...? This appends the given items to the list value that the given key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty list, and it is legal for there to be no items to append to the list. It is an error for the value that the key maps to to not be representable as a list. The updated dictionary value is returned. dict map {keyVariable valueVariable} dictionaryValue body This command applies a transformation to each element of a dictionary, returning a new dictionary. It takes three arguments: the first is a two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across, and the third a script to be evaluated for each mapping with the key and value variables set appropriately (in the manner of lmap). In an iteration where the evaluated script completes normally (TCL_OK, as opposed to an error, etc.) the result of the script is put into an accumulator dictionary using the key that is the current contents of the keyVariable variable at that point. The result of the dict map command is the accumulator dictionary after all keys have been iterated over. If the evaluation of the body for any particular step generates a break, no further pairs from the dictionary will be iterated over and the dict map command will terminate successfully immediately. If the evaluation of the body for a particular step generates a continue result, the current iteration is aborted and the accumulator dictionary is not modified. The order of iteration is the natural order of the dictionary (typically the order in which the keys were added to the dictionary; the order is the same as that used in dict for). dict merge ?dictionaryValue ...? Return a dictionary that contains the contents of each of the dictionaryValue arguments. Where two (or more) dictionaries contain a mapping for the same key, the resulting dictionary maps that key to the value according to the last dictionary on the command line containing a mapping for that key. dict remove dictionaryValue ?key ...? Return a new dictionary that is a copy of an old one passed in as first argument except without mappings for each of the keys listed. It is legal for there to be no keys to remove, and it also legal for any of the keys to be removed to not be present in the input dictionary in the first place. dict replace dictionaryValue ?key value ...? Return a new dictionary that is a copy of an old one passed in as first argument except with some values different or some extra key/value pairs added. It is legal for this command to be called with no key/value pairs, but illegal for this command to be called with a key but no value. dict set dictionaryVariable key ?key ...? value This operation takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable containing a mapping from the given key to the given value. When multiple keys are present, this operation creates or updates a chain of nested dictionaries. The updated dictionary value is returned. dict size dictionaryValue Return the number of key/value mappings in the given dictionary value. dict unset dictionaryVariable key ?key ...? This operation (the companion to dict set) takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable that does not contain a mapping for the given key. Where multiple keys are present, this describes a path through nested dictionaries to the mapping to remove. At least one key must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist. All other components on the path must exist. The updated dictionary value is returned. dict update dictionaryVariable key varName ?key varName ...? body Execute the Tcl script in body with the value for each key (as found by reading the dictionary value in dictionaryVariable) mapped to the variable varName. There may be multiple key/varName pairs. If a key does not have a mapping, that corresponds to an unset varName. When body terminates, any changes made to the varNames is reflected back to the dictionary within dictionaryVariable (unless dictionaryVariable itself becomes unreadable, when all updates are silently discarded), even if the result of body is an error or some other kind of exceptional exit. The result of dict update is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of body. Each varName is mapped in the scope enclosing the dict update; it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope (procedure, lambda term for apply, or method). Because of this, the variables set by dict update will continue to exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly unset). Note that the mapping of values to variables does not use traces; changes to the dictionaryVariable's contents only happen when body terminates. dict values dictionaryValue ?globPattern? Return a list of all values in the given dictionary value. If a pattern is supplied, only those values that match it (according to the rules of string match) will be returned. The returned values will be in the order of that the keys associated with those values were inserted into the dictionary. dict with dictionaryVariable ?key ...? body Execute the Tcl script in body with the value for each key in dictionaryVariable mapped (in a manner similarly to dict update) to a variable with the same name. Where one or more keys are available, these indicate a chain of nested dictionaries, with the innermost dictionary being the one opened out for the execution of body. As with dict update, making dictionaryVariable unreadable will make the updates to the dictionary be discarded, and this also happens if the contents of dictionaryVariable are adjusted so that the chain of dictionaries no longer exists. The result of dict with is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of body. The variables are mapped in the scope enclosing the dict with; it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope (procedure, lambda term for apply, or method). Because of this, the variables set by dict with will continue to exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly unset). Note that the mapping of values to variables does not use traces; changes to the dictionaryVariable's contents only happen when body terminates. If the dictionaryVariable contains a value that is not a dictionary at the point when the body terminates (which can easily happen if the name is the same as any of the keys in dictionary) then an error occurs at that point. This command is thus not recommended for use when the keys in the dictionary are expected to clash with the dictionaryVariable name itself. Where the contained key does map to a dictionary, the net effect is to combine that inner dictionary into the outer dictionary; see the EXAMPLES below for an illustration of this.

DICTIONARY VALUES

Dictionaries are values that contain an efficient, order-preserving mapping from arbitrary keys to arbitrary values. Each key in the dictionary maps to a single value. They have a textual format that is exactly that of any list with an even number of elements, with each mapping in the dictionary being represented as two items in the list. When a command takes a dictionary and produces a new dictionary based on it (either returning it or writing it back into the variable that the starting dictionary was read from) the new dictionary will have the same order of keys, modulo any deleted keys and with new keys added on to the end. When a string is interpreted as a dictionary and it would otherwise have duplicate keys, only the last value for a particular key is used; the others are ignored, meaning that, "apple banana" and "apple carrot apple banana" are equivalent dictionaries (with different string representations). Operations that derive a new dictionary from an old one (e.g., updates like dict set and dict unset) preserve the order of keys in the dictionary. The exceptions to this are for any new keys they add, which are appended to the sequence, and any keys that are removed, which are excised from the order.

EXAMPLES

Basic dictionary usage: # Make a dictionary to map extensions to descriptions set filetypes [dict create .txt "Text File" .tcl "Tcl File"] # Add/update the dictionary dict set filetypes .tcl "Tcl Script" dict set filetypes .tm "Tcl Module" dict set filetypes .gif "GIF Image" dict set filetypes .png "PNG Image" # Simple read from the dictionary set ext ".tcl" set desc [dict get $filetypes $ext] puts "$ext is for a $desc" # Somewhat more complex, with existence test foreach filename [glob *] { set ext [file extension $filename] if {[dict exists $filetypes $ext]} { puts "$filename is a [dict get $filetypes $ext]" } } Constructing and using nested dictionaries: # Data for one employee dict set employeeInfo 12345-A forenames "Joe" dict set employeeInfo 12345-A surname "Schmoe" dict set employeeInfo 12345-A street "147 Short Street" dict set employeeInfo 12345-A city "Springfield" dict set employeeInfo 12345-A phone "555-1234" # Data for another employee dict set employeeInfo 98372-J forenames "Anne" dict set employeeInfo 98372-J surname "Other" dict set employeeInfo 98372-J street "32995 Oakdale Way" dict set employeeInfo 98372-J city "Springfield" dict set employeeInfo 98372-J phone "555-8765" # The above data probably ought to come from a database... # Print out some employee info set i 0 puts "There are [dict size $employeeInfo] employees" dict for {id info} $employeeInfo { puts "Employee #[incr i]: $id" dict with info { puts " Name: $forenames $surname" puts " Address: $street, $city" puts " Telephone: $phone" } } # Another way to iterate and pick out names... foreach id [dict keys $employeeInfo] { puts "Hello, [dict get $employeeInfo $id forenames]!" } A localizable version of string toupper: # Set up the basic C locale set capital [dict create C [dict create]] foreach c [split {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} ""] { dict set capital C $c [string toupper $c] } # English locales can luckily share the "C" locale dict set capital en [dict get $capital C] dict set capital en_US [dict get $capital C] dict set capital en_GB [dict get $capital C] # ... and so on for other supported languages ... # Now get the mapping for the current locale and use it. set upperCaseMap [dict get $capital $env(LANG)] set upperCase [string map $upperCaseMap $string] Showing the detail of dict with: proc sumDictionary {varName} { upvar 1 $varName vbl foreach key [dict keys $vbl] { # Manufacture an entry in the subdictionary dict set vbl $key total 0 # Add the values and remove the old dict with vbl $key { set total [expr {$x + $y + $z}] unset x y z } } puts "last total was $total, for key $key" } set myDict { a {x 1 y 2 z 3} b {x 6 y 5 z 4} } sumDictionary myDict # prints: last total was 15, for key b puts "dictionary is now \"$myDict\"" # prints: dictionary is now "a {total 6} b {total 15}" When dict with is used with a key that clashes with the name of the dictionary variable: set foo {foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3} dict with foo {} puts $foo # prints: a b foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3

SEE ALSO

append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), lmap(n), set(n)

KEYWORDS

dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter, map Tcl 8.5 dict(n)

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