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BUILTIN(1)             DragonFly General Commands Manual            BUILTIN(1)

NAME

builtin, !, %, ., :, @, [, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break, breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default, dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval, exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts, glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, let, limit, local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd, printenv, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set, setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch, telltc, termname, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask, unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait, where, which, while, wordexp -- shell built-in commands

SYNOPSIS

See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual page.

DESCRIPTION

Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the run- ning shell's process. Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands, the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last. If a command specified to the shell contains a slash `/', the shell will not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the speci- fied command matches the name of a builtin command. Thus, while specify- ing ``echo'' causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that support the echo builtin command, specifying ``/bin/echo'' or ``./echo'' does not. While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their oper- ation may be different under each shell which supports them. Below is a table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that sup- port them and whether they exist as standalone utilities. Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here. Consult a shell's manual page for details on the operation its builtin commands. Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of these commands ``built-in commands'' and some of them ``reserved words''. Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other sources of documentation. Commands marked ``No**'' under External do exist externally, but are implemented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name. Command External csh(1) sh(1) ! No No Yes % No Yes No . No No Yes : No Yes Yes @ No Yes No [ Yes No Yes { No No Yes } No No Yes alias No** Yes Yes alloc No Yes No bg No** Yes Yes bind No No Yes bindkey No Yes No break No Yes Yes breaksw No Yes No builtin No No Yes builtins No Yes No case No Yes Yes cd No** Yes Yes chdir No Yes Yes command No** No Yes complete No Yes No continue No Yes Yes default No Yes No dirs No Yes No do No No Yes done No No Yes echo Yes Yes Yes echotc No Yes No elif No No Yes else No Yes Yes end No Yes No endif No Yes No endsw No Yes No esac No No Yes eval No Yes Yes exec No Yes Yes exit No Yes Yes export No No Yes false Yes No Yes fc No** No Yes fg No** Yes Yes filetest No Yes No fi No No Yes for No No Yes foreach No Yes No getopts No** No Yes glob No Yes No goto No Yes No hash No No Yes hashstat No Yes No history No Yes No hup No Yes No if No Yes Yes jobid No No Yes jobs No** Yes Yes kill Yes Yes Yes let No No Yes limit No Yes No local No No Yes log No Yes No login Yes Yes No logout No Yes No ls-F No Yes No nice Yes Yes No nohup Yes Yes No notify No Yes No onintr No Yes No popd No Yes No printenv Yes Yes No printf Yes No Yes pushd No Yes No pwd Yes No Yes read No** No Yes readonly No No Yes rehash No Yes No repeat No Yes No return No No Yes sched No Yes No set No Yes Yes setenv No Yes No settc No Yes No setty No Yes No setvar No No Yes shift No Yes Yes source No Yes No stop No Yes No suspend No Yes No switch No Yes No telltc No Yes No termname No Yes No test Yes No Yes then No No Yes time Yes Yes No times No No Yes trap No No Yes true Yes No Yes type No No Yes ulimit No No Yes umask No** Yes Yes unalias No** Yes Yes uncomplete No Yes No unhash No Yes No unlimit No Yes No unset No Yes Yes unsetenv No Yes No until No No Yes wait No** Yes Yes where No Yes No which Yes Yes No while No Yes Yes wordexp No No Yes

SEE ALSO

csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1), printenv(1), printf(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)

HISTORY

The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.

AUTHORS

This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn <sheldonh@FreeBSD.org>. DragonFly 3.5 May 18, 2012 DragonFly 3.5 exec(n) Tcl Built-In Commands exec(n) ______________________________________________________________________________

NAME

exec - Invoke subprocesses

SYNOPSIS

exec ?switches? arg ?arg ...? ?&? ______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION

This command treats its arguments as the specification of one or more subprocesses to execute. The arguments take the form of a standard shell pipeline where each arg becomes one word of a command, and each distinct command becomes a subprocess. If the initial arguments to exec start with - then they are treated as command-line switches and are not part of the pipeline specification. The following switches are currently supported: -ignorestderr Stops the exec command from treating the output of messages to the pipeline's standard error channel as an error case. -keepnewline Retains a trailing newline in the pipeline's output. Normally a trailing newline will be deleted. -- Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as the first arg even if it starts with a -. If an arg (or pair of args) has one of the forms described below then it is used by exec to control the flow of input and output among the subprocess(es). Such arguments will not be passed to the subprocess(es). In forms such as "< fileName", fileName may either be in a separate argument from "<" or in the same argument with no intervening space (i.e. "<fileName"). | Separates distinct commands in the pipeline. The standard output of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input of the next command. |& Separates distinct commands in the pipeline. Both standard output and standard error of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input of the next command. This form of redirection overrides forms such as 2> and >&. < fileName The file named by fileName is opened and used as the standard input for the first command in the pipeline. <@ fileId FileId must be the identifier for an open file, such as the return value from a previous call to open. It is used as the standard input for the first command in the pipeline. FileId must have been opened for reading. << value Value is passed to the first command as its standard input. > fileName Standard output from the last command is redirected to the file named fileName, overwriting its previous contents. 2> fileName Standard error from all commands in the pipeline is redirected to the file named fileName, overwriting its previous contents. >& fileName Both standard output from the last command and standard error from all commands are redirected to the file named fileName, overwriting its previous contents. >> fileName Standard output from the last command is redirected to the file named fileName, appending to it rather than overwriting it. 2>> fileName Standard error from all commands in the pipeline is redirected to the file named fileName, appending to it rather than overwriting it. >>& fileName Both standard output from the last command and standard error from all commands are redirected to the file named fileName, appending to it rather than overwriting it. >@ fileId FileId must be the identifier for an open file, such as the return value from a previous call to open. Standard output from the last command is redirected to fileId's file, which must have been opened for writing. 2>@ fileId FileId must be the identifier for an open file, such as the return value from a previous call to open. Standard error from all commands in the pipeline is redirected to fileId's file. The file must have been opened for writing. 2>@1 Standard error from all commands in the pipeline is redirected to the command result. This operator is only valid at the end of the command pipeline. >&@ fileId FileId must be the identifier for an open file, such as the return value from a previous call to open. Both standard output from the last command and standard error from all commands are redirected to fileId's file. The file must have been opened for writing. If standard output has not been redirected then the exec command returns the standard output from the last command in the pipeline, unless "2>@1" was specified, in which case standard error is included as well. If any of the commands in the pipeline exit abnormally or are killed or suspended, then exec will return an error and the error message will include the pipeline's output followed by error messages describing the abnormal terminations; the -errorcode return option will contain additional information about the last abnormal termination encountered. If any of the commands writes to its standard error file and that standard error is not redirected and -ignorestderr is not specified, then exec will return an error; the error message will include the pipeline's standard output, followed by messages about abnormal terminations (if any), followed by the standard error output. If the last character of the result or error message is a newline then that character is normally deleted from the result or error message. This is consistent with other Tcl return values, which do not normally end with newlines. However, if -keepnewline is specified then the trailing newline is retained. If standard input is not redirected with "<", "<<" or "<@" then the standard input for the first command in the pipeline is taken from the application's current standard input. If the last arg is "&" then the pipeline will be executed in background. In this case the exec command will return a list whose elements are the process identifiers for all of the subprocesses in the pipeline. The standard output from the last command in the pipeline will go to the application's standard output if it has not been redirected, and error output from all of the commands in the pipeline will go to the application's standard error file unless redirected. The first word in each command is taken as the command name; tilde- substitution is performed on it, and if the result contains no slashes then the directories in the PATH environment variable are searched for an executable by the given name. If the name contains a slash then it must refer to an executable reachable from the current directory. No "glob" expansion or other shell-like substitutions are performed on the arguments to commands.

PORTABILITY ISSUES

Windows (all versions) Reading from or writing to a socket, using the "@ fileId" notation, does not work. When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with end-of-file. When either type of application writes to a socket, the information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is discarded. Note that the current escape resp. quoting of arguments for windows works only with executables using CommandLineToArgv, CRT-library or similar, as well as with the windows batch files (excepting the newline, see below). Although it is the common escape algorithm, but, in fact, the way how the executable parses the command-line (resp. splits it into single arguments) is decisive. Unfortunately, there is currently no way to supply newline character within an argument to the batch files (.cmd or .bat) or to the command processor (cmd.exe /c), because this causes truncation of command-line (also the argument chain) on the first newline character. But it works properly with an executable (using CommandLineToArgv, etc). The Tk console text widget does not provide real standard IO capabilities. Under Tk, when redirecting from standard input, all applications will see an immediate end-of-file; information redirected to standard output or standard error will be discarded. Either forward or backward slashes are accepted as path separators for arguments to Tcl commands. When executing an application, the path name specified for the application may also contain forward or backward slashes as path separators. Bear in mind, however, that most Windows applications accept arguments with forward slashes only as option delimiters and backslashes only in paths. Any arguments to an application that specify a path name with forward slashes will not automatically be converted to use the backslash character. If an argument contains forward slashes as the path separator, it may or may not be recognized as a path name, depending on the program. Additionally, when calling a 16-bit DOS or Windows 3.X application, all path names must use the short, cryptic, path format (e.g., using "applba~1.def" instead of "applbakery.default"), which can be obtained with the "file attributes fileName -shortname" command. Two or more forward or backward slashes in a row in a path refer to a network path. For example, a simple concatenation of the root directory c:/ with a subdirectory /windows/system will yield c://windows/system (two slashes together), which refers to the mount point called system on the machine called windows (and the c:/ is ignored), and is not equivalent to c:/windows/system, which describes a directory on the current computer. The file join command should be used to concatenate path components. Note that there are two general types of Win32 console applications: [1] CLI -- CommandLine Interface, simple stdio exchange. netstat.exe for example. [2] TUI -- Textmode User Interface, any application that accesses the console API for doing such things as cursor movement, setting text color, detecting key presses and mouse movement, etc. An example would be telnet.exe from Windows 2000. These types of applications are not common in a windows environment, but do exist. exec will not work well with TUI applications when a console is not present, as is done when launching applications under wish. It is desirable to have console applications hidden and detached. This is a designed-in limitation as exec wants to communicate over pipes. The Expect extension addresses this issue when communicating with a TUI application. When attempting to execute an application, exec first searches for the name as it was specified. Then, in order, .com, .exe, .bat and .cmd are appended to the end of the specified name and it searches for the longer name. If a directory name was not specified as part of the application name, the following directories are automatically searched in order when attempting to locate the application: o The directory from which the Tcl executable was loaded. o The current directory. o The Windows NT 32-bit system directory. o The Windows NT 16-bit system directory. o The Windows NT home directory. o The directories listed in the path. In order to execute shell built-in commands like dir and copy, the caller must prepend the desired command with "cmd.exe /c " because built-in commands are not implemented using executables. Unix (including Mac OS X) The exec command is fully functional and works as described.

UNIX EXAMPLES

Here are some examples of the use of the exec command on Unix. To execute a simple program and get its result: exec uname -a WORKING WITH NON-ZERO RESULTS To execute a program that can return a non-zero result, you should wrap the call to exec in catch and check the contents of the -errorcode return option if you have an error: set status 0 if {[catch {exec grep foo bar.txt} results options]} { set details [dict get $options -errorcode] if {[lindex $details 0] eq "CHILDSTATUS"} { set status [lindex $details 2] } else { # Some other error; regenerate it to let caller handle return -options $options -level 0 $results } } This is more easily written using the try command, as that makes it | simpler to trap specific types of errors. This is done using code like | this: | try { | set results [exec grep foo bar.txt] | set status 0 | } trap CHILDSTATUS {results options} { | set status [lindex [dict get $options -errorcode] 2] | } | WORKING WITH QUOTED ARGUMENTS When translating a command from a Unix shell invocation, care should be taken over the fact that single quote characters have no special significance to Tcl. Thus: awk '{sum += $1} END {print sum}' numbers.list would be translated into something like: exec awk {{sum += $1} END {print sum}} numbers.list WORKING WITH GLOBBING If you are converting invocations involving shell globbing, you should remember that Tcl does not handle globbing or expand things into multiple arguments by default. Instead you should write things like this: exec ls -l {*}[glob *.tcl] WORKING WITH USER-SUPPLIED SHELL SCRIPT FRAGMENTS One useful technique can be to expose to users of a script the ability to specify a fragment of shell script to execute that will have some data passed in on standard input that was produced by the Tcl program. This is a common technique for using the lpr program for printing. By far the simplest way of doing this is to pass the user's script to the user's shell for processing, as this avoids a lot of complexity with parsing other languages. set lprScript [get from user...] set postscriptData [generate somehow...] exec $env(SHELL) -c $lprScript << $postscriptData

WINDOWS EXAMPLES

Here are some examples of the use of the exec command on Windows. To start an instance of notepad editing a file without waiting for the user to finish editing the file: exec notepad myfile.txt & To print a text file using notepad: exec notepad /p myfile.txt WORKING WITH CONSOLE PROGRAMS If a program calls other programs, such as is common with compilers, then you may need to resort to batch files to hide the console windows that sometimes pop up: exec cmp.bat somefile.c -o somefile With the file cmp.bat looking something like: @gcc %* or like another variant using single parameters: @gcc %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9 WORKING WITH COMMAND BUILT-INS Sometimes you need to be careful, as different programs may have the same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command at the DOS prompt finds a different program than the same command run via exec. This is because of the (documented) differences in behaviour between exec and DOS batch files. When in doubt, use the command auto_execok: it will return the complete path to the program as seen by the exec command. This applies especially when you want to run "internal" commands like dir from a Tcl script (if you just want to list filenames, use the glob command.) To do that, use this: exec {*}[auto_execok dir] *.tcl WORKING WITH NATIVE FILENAMES Many programs on Windows require filename arguments to be passed in with backslashes as pathname separators. This is done with the help of the file nativename command. For example, to make a directory (on NTFS) encrypted so that only the current user can access it requires use of the CIPHER command, like this: set secureDir "~/Desktop/Secure Directory" file mkdir $secureDir exec CIPHER /e /s:[file nativename $secureDir]

SEE ALSO

error(n), file(n), open(n)

KEYWORDS

execute, pipeline, redirection, subprocess Tcl 8.5 exec(n)

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