DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
GS(1) Ghostscript GS(1)
gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and
gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)
The gs (gswin32c, gswin32, gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an
interpreter of Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document
Format (PDF) languages. gs reads "files" in sequence and executes them
as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further input from
the standard input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting each
line separately and output to an output device (may be a file or an X11
window preview, see below). The interpreter exits gracefully when it
encounters the "quit" command (either in a file or from the keyboard),
at end-of-file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the
The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are
described below. Please see the usage documentation for complete
information. Switches may appear anywhere in the command line and apply
to all files thereafter. Invoking Ghostscript with the -h or -? switch
produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the devices
known to that executable, and the search path for fonts; on Unix it
also shows the location of detailed documentation.
Ghostscript may be built to use many different output devices. To see
which devices your executable includes, run "gs -h".
Unless you specify a particular device, Ghostscript normally opens the
first one of those and directs output to it.
If built with X11 support, often the default device is an X11 window
(previewer), else ghostscript will typically use the bbox device and
print on stdout the dimension of the postscript file.
So if the first one in the list is the one you want to use, just issue
You can also check the set of available devices from within
Ghostscript: invoke Ghostscript and type
but the first device on the resulting list may not be the default
device you determine with "gs -h". To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial
output device, include the switch
For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command
gs -sDEVICE=epson myfile.ps
The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first mention of a file to
print, and only the switch's first use has any effect.
Finally, you can specify a default device in the environment variable
GS_DEVICE. The order of precedence for these alternatives from highest
to lowest (Ghostscript uses the device defined highest in the list) is:
Some devices can support different resolutions (densities). To specify
the resolution on such a printer, use the "-r" switch:
gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>
For example, on a 9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get the lowest-
density (fastest) mode with
gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72
and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with
gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.
If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows
you to choose where Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems,
usually to a temporary file. To send the output to a file "foo.xyz",
use the switch
You might want to print each page separately. To do this, send the
output to a series of files "foo1.xyz, foo2.xyz, ..." using the
"-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename template:
Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are
numbered in sequence. "%d" is a printf format specification; you can
also use a variant like "%02d".
On Unix and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe. For
example, to pipe output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix
systems, directs it to a printer), use the option
Note that the '%' characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid
mangling by the command interpreter.
You can also send output to standard output:
In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript
from writing messages to standard output.
To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch
Most ISO and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation
for a full list, or the definitions in the initialization file
Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript and
PDF files. For example, if you want to know the bounding box of a
PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript provides a special "device" that
just prints out this information.
For example, using one of the example files distributed with
gs -sDEVICE=bbox golfer.ps
%%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
%%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445
-- filename arg1 ...
Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all
remaining arguments (even if they have the syntactic form of
switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS" in "userdict" (not
"systemdict") as an array of those strings, before running the
file. When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits
back to the shell.
Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition. The
token must be exactly one token (as defined by the "token"
operator) and may contain no whitespace.
-dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.
Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.
This is different from -d. For example, -dname=35 is equivalent
to the program fragment
/name 35 def
whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
/name (35) def
-P Makes Ghostscript to look first in the current directory for
library files. By default, Ghostscript no longer looks in the
current directory, unless, of course, the first explicitly
supplied directory is "." in -I. See also the INITIALIZATION
FILES section below, and bundled Use.htm for detailed discussion
on search paths and how Ghostcript finds files.
-q Quiet startup: suppress normal startup messages, and also do the
equivalent of -dQUIET.
Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.
This is for the benefit of devices (such as X11 windows) that
require (or allow) width and height to be specified.
Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and
-dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2. This is for the benefit of devices
such as printers that support multiple X and Y resolutions. If
only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y
Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the
search path for library files.
- This is not really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that
standard input is coming from a file or a pipe and not
interactively from the command line. Ghostscript reads from
standard input until it reaches end-of-file, executing it like
any other file, and then continues with processing the command
line. When the command line has been entirely processed,
Ghostscript exits rather than going into its interactive mode.
Note that the normal initialization file "gs_init.ps" makes
"systemdict" read-only, so the values of names defined with -D, -d, -S,
or -s cannot be changed (although, of course, they can be superseded by
definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)
Disables character caching. Useful only for debugging.
Disables the "bind" operator. Useful only for debugging.
Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device. This
may be useful when debugging.
Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page. This may
be desirable for applications where another program is driving
Disables the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform
(for instance X Windows). This may be needed if the platform
fonts look undesirably different from the scalable fonts.
Restricts file operations the job can perform. Now the default
mode of operation.
Leaves "systemdict" writable. This is necessary when running
special utility programs, but is strongly discouraged as it
bypasses normal Postscript security measures.
Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.
Selects an alternate output file (or pipe) for the initial
output device, as described above.
The -dSAFER option restricts file system accesses to those files and
directories allowed by the relevant environment variables (such as
GS_LIB) or by the command line parameters (see
https://ghostscript.com/doc/current/Use.htm for details).
SAFER mode is now the default mode of operation. Thus when running
programs that need to open files or set restricted parameters you
should pass the -dNOSAFER command line option or its synonym
Running with NOSAFER/DELAYSAFER (as the same suggests) loosens the
security and is thus recommended ONLY for debugging or in VERY
controlled workflows, and strongly NOT recommended in any other
The locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the
executable when it is built. On Unix these are typically based in
/usr/local, but this may be different on your system. Under DOS they
are typically based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, especially if you
install Ghostscript with GSview. Run "gs -h" to find the location of
Ghostscript documentation on your system, from which you can get more
Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions
More font definitions
Ghostscript demonstration files
Diverse document files
When looking for the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related
to fonts, or the file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries
to open the file with the name as given, using the current working
directory if no directory is specified. If this fails, and the file
name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive (for instance,
doesn't contain "/" on Unix systems or "\" on MS Windows systems),
Ghostscript tries directories in this order:
1. the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line
(see below), if any;
2. the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if
3. the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the
Ghostscript makefile when the executable was built. When gs is
built on Unix, GS_LIB_DEFAULT is usually
where "#.##" represents the Ghostscript version number.
Each of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either
a single directory or a list of directories separated by ":".
String of options to be processed before the command line
Used to specify an output device
Path names used to search for fonts
GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts
TEMP Where temporary files are made
Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display device, looks for the
following resources under the program name "Ghostscript":
The border width in pixels (default = 1).
The name of the border color (default = black).
The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).
The number of x pixels per inch (default is computed from
WidthOfScreen and WidthMMOfScreen).
The number of y pixels per inch (default is computed from
HeightOfScreen and HeightMMOfScreen).
Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving
display window (default = true).
See the usage document for a more complete list of resources. To set
these resources on Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in
the following form:
Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:
% xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources
The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.
See http://bugs.ghostscript.com/ and the Usenet news group
This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 9.56.1.
Artifex Software, Inc. are the primary maintainers of Ghostscript.
Russell J. Lang, gsview at ghostgum.com.au, is the author of most of
the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.
9.56.1 4 April 2022 GS(1)