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BUILTIN(1)             DragonFly General Commands Manual            BUILTIN(1)

NAME

builtin, !, %, ., :, @, [, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break, breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default, dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval, exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts, glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, let, limit, local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd, printenv, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set, setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch, telltc, termname, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask, unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait, where, which, while, wordexp -- shell built-in commands

SYNOPSIS

See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual page.

DESCRIPTION

Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the run- ning shell's process. Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands, the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last. If a command specified to the shell contains a slash `/', the shell will not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the speci- fied command matches the name of a builtin command. Thus, while specify- ing ``echo'' causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that support the echo builtin command, specifying ``/bin/echo'' or ``./echo'' does not. While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their oper- ation may be different under each shell which supports them. Below is a table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that sup- port them and whether they exist as standalone utilities. Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here. Consult a shell's manual page for details on the operation its builtin commands. Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of these commands ``built-in commands'' and some of them ``reserved words''. Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other sources of documentation. Commands marked ``No**'' under External do exist externally, but are implemented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name. Command External csh(1) sh(1) ! No No Yes % No Yes No . No No Yes : No Yes Yes @ No Yes No [ Yes No Yes { No No Yes } No No Yes alias No** Yes Yes alloc No Yes No bg No** Yes Yes bind No No Yes bindkey No Yes No break No Yes Yes breaksw No Yes No builtin No No Yes builtins No Yes No case No Yes Yes cd No** Yes Yes chdir No Yes Yes command No** No Yes complete No Yes No continue No Yes Yes default No Yes No dirs No Yes No do No No Yes done No No Yes echo Yes Yes Yes echotc No Yes No elif No No Yes else No Yes Yes end No Yes No endif No Yes No endsw No Yes No esac No No Yes eval No Yes Yes exec No Yes Yes exit No Yes Yes export No No Yes false Yes No Yes fc No** No Yes fg No** Yes Yes filetest No Yes No fi No No Yes for No No Yes foreach No Yes No getopts No** No Yes glob No Yes No goto No Yes No hash No No Yes hashstat No Yes No history No Yes No hup No Yes No if No Yes Yes jobid No No Yes jobs No** Yes Yes kill Yes Yes Yes let No No Yes limit No Yes No local No No Yes log No Yes No login Yes Yes No logout No Yes No ls-F No Yes No nice Yes Yes No nohup Yes Yes No notify No Yes No onintr No Yes No popd No Yes No printenv Yes Yes No printf Yes No Yes pushd No Yes No pwd Yes No Yes read No** No Yes readonly No No Yes rehash No Yes No repeat No Yes No return No No Yes sched No Yes No set No Yes Yes setenv No Yes No settc No Yes No setty No Yes No setvar No No Yes shift No Yes Yes source No Yes No stop No Yes No suspend No Yes No switch No Yes No telltc No Yes No termname No Yes No test Yes No Yes then No No Yes time Yes Yes No times No No Yes trap No No Yes true Yes No Yes type No No Yes ulimit No No Yes umask No** Yes Yes unalias No** Yes Yes uncomplete No Yes No unhash No Yes No unlimit No Yes No unset No Yes Yes unsetenv No Yes No until No No Yes wait No** Yes Yes where No Yes No which Yes Yes No while No Yes Yes wordexp No No Yes

SEE ALSO

csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1), printenv(1), printf(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)

HISTORY

The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.

AUTHORS

This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn <sheldonh@FreeBSD.org>. DragonFly 3.5 May 18, 2012 DragonFly 3.5 history(n) Tcl Built-In Commands history(n) ______________________________________________________________________________

NAME

history - Manipulate the history list

SYNOPSIS

history ?option? ?arg arg ...? ______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION

The history command performs one of several operations related to recently-executed commands recorded in a history list. Each of these recorded commands is referred to as an "event". When specifying an event to the history command, the following forms may be used: [1] A number: if positive, it refers to the event with that number (all events are numbered starting at 1). If the number is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event (-1 refers to the previous event, -2 to the one before that, and so on). Event 0 refers to the current event. [2] A string: selects the most recent event that matches the string. An event is considered to match the string either if the string is the same as the first characters of the event, or if the string matches the event in the sense of the string match command. The history command can take any of the following forms: history Same as history info, described below. history add command ?exec? Adds the command argument to the history list as a new event. If exec is specified (or abbreviated) then the command is also executed and its result is returned. If exec is not specified then an empty string is returned as result. history change newValue ?event? Replaces the value recorded for an event with newValue. Event specifies the event to replace, and defaults to the current event (not event -1). This command is intended for use in commands that implement new forms of history substitution and wish to replace the current event (which invokes the substitution) with the command created through substitution. The return value is an empty string. history clear Erase the history list. The current keep limit is retained. The history event numbers are reset. history event ?event? Returns the value of the event given by event. Event defaults to -1. history info ?count? Returns a formatted string (intended for humans to read) giving the event number and contents for each of the events in the history list except the current event. If count is specified then only the most recent count events are returned. history keep ?count? This command may be used to change the size of the history list to count events. Initially, 20 events are retained in the history list. If count is not specified, the current keep limit is returned. history nextid Returns the number of the next event to be recorded in the history list. It is useful for things like printing the event number in command-line prompts. history redo ?event? Re-executes the command indicated by event and returns its result. Event defaults to -1. This command results in history revision: see below for details.

HISTORY REVISION

Pre-8.0 Tcl had a complex history revision mechanism. The current mechanism is more limited, and the old history operations substitute and words have been removed. (As a consolation, the clear operation was added.) The history option redo results in much simpler "history revision". When this option is invoked then the most recent event is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with the result of the history command. If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use the event operation to retrieve some event, and the add operation to add it to history and execute it.

KEYWORDS

event, history, record Tcl history(n)

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