DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
JPEGTRAN(1) DragonFly General Commands Manual JPEGTRAN(1)
jpegtran - lossless transformation of JPEG files
jpegtran [ options ] [ filename ]
jpegtran performs various useful transformations of JPEG files. It can
translate the coded representation from one variant of JPEG to another,
for example from baseline JPEG to progressive JPEG or vice versa. It
can also perform some rearrangements of the image data, for example
turning an image from landscape to portrait format by rotation.
For EXIF files and JPEG files containing Exif data, you may prefer to
use exiftran instead.
jpegtran works by rearranging the compressed data (DCT coefficients),
without ever fully decoding the image. Therefore, its transformations
are lossless: there is no image degradation at all, which would not be
true if you used djpeg followed by cjpeg to accomplish the same
conversion. But by the same token, jpegtran cannot perform lossy
operations such as changing the image quality. However, while the
image data is losslessly transformed, metadata can be removed. See the
-copy option for specifics.
jpegtran reads the named JPEG/JFIF file, or the standard input if no
file is named, and produces a JPEG/JFIF file on the standard output.
All switch names may be abbreviated; for example, -optimize may be
written -opt or -o. Upper and lower case are equivalent. British
spellings are also accepted (e.g., -optimise), though for brevity these
are not mentioned below.
To specify the coded JPEG representation used in the output file,
jpegtran accepts a subset of the switches recognized by cjpeg:
Perform optimization of entropy encoding parameters.
Create progressive JPEG file.
Emit a JPEG restart marker every N MCU rows, or every N MCU
blocks if "B" is attached to the number.
Use arithmetic coding.
Use the scan script given in the specified text file.
See cjpeg(1) for more details about these switches. If you specify
none of these switches, you get a plain baseline-JPEG output file. The
quality setting and so forth are determined by the input file.
The image can be losslessly transformed by giving one of these
Mirror image horizontally (left-right).
Mirror image vertically (top-bottom).
Rotate image 90 degrees clockwise.
Rotate image 180 degrees.
Rotate image 270 degrees clockwise (or 90 ccw).
Transpose image (across UL-to-LR axis).
Transverse transpose (across UR-to-LL axis).
The transpose transformation has no restrictions regarding image
dimensions. The other transformations operate rather oddly if the
image dimensions are not a multiple of the iMCU size (usually 8 or 16
pixels), because they can only transform complete blocks of DCT
coefficient data in the desired way.
jpegtran's default behavior when transforming an odd-size image is
designed to preserve exact reversibility and mathematical consistency
of the transformation set. As stated, transpose is able to flip the
entire image area. Horizontal mirroring leaves any partial iMCU column
at the right edge untouched, but is able to flip all rows of the image.
Similarly, vertical mirroring leaves any partial iMCU row at the bottom
edge untouched, but is able to flip all columns. The other transforms
can be built up as sequences of transpose and flip operations; for
consistency, their actions on edge pixels are defined to be the same as
the end result of the corresponding transpose-and-flip sequence.
For practical use, you may prefer to discard any untransformable edge
pixels rather than having a strange-looking strip along the right
and/or bottom edges of a transformed image. To do this, add the -trim
-trim Drop non-transformable edge blocks.
Obviously, a transformation with -trim is not reversible, so
strictly speaking jpegtran with this switch is not lossless.
Also, the expected mathematical equivalences between the
transformations no longer hold. For example, -rot 270 -trim
trims only the bottom edge, but -rot 90 -trim followed by -rot
180 -trim trims both edges.
If you are only interested in perfect transformations, add the
-perfect switch. This causes jpegtran to fail with an error if
the transformation is not perfect.
For example, you may want to do
(jpegtran -rot 90 -perfect foo.jpg || djpeg foo.jpg | pnmflip
-r90 | cjpeg)
to do a perfect rotation, if available, or an approximated one
This version of jpegtran also offers a lossless crop option, which
discards data outside of a given image region but losslessly preserves
what is inside. Like the rotate and flip transforms, lossless crop is
restricted by the current JPEG format; the upper left corner of the
selected region must fall on an iMCU boundary. If it doesn't, then it
is silently moved up and/or left to the nearest iMCU boundary (the
lower right corner is unchanged.) Thus, the output image covers at
least the requested region, but it may cover more. The adjustment of
the region dimensions may be optionally disabled by attaching an
The image can be losslessly cropped by giving the switch:
Crop the image to a rectangular region of width W and height H,
starting at point X,Y. The lossless crop feature discards data
outside of a given image region but losslessly preserves what is
inside. Like the rotate and flip transforms, lossless crop is
restricted by the current JPEG format; the upper left corner of
the selected region must fall on an iMCU boundary. If it
doesn't, then it is silently moved up and/or left to the nearest
iMCU boundary (the lower right corner is unchanged.)
If W or H is larger than the width/height of the input image, then the
output image is expanded in size, and the expanded region is filled in
with zeros (neutral gray). Attaching an 'f' character ("flatten") to
the width number will cause each block in the expanded region to be
filled in with the DC coefficient of the nearest block in the input
image rather than grayed out. Attaching an 'r' character ("reflect")
to the width number will cause the expanded region to be filled in with
repeated reflections of the input image rather than grayed out.
A complementary lossless wipe option is provided to discard (gray out)
data inside a given image region while losslessly preserving what is
Wipe (gray out) a rectangular region of width W and height H
from the input image, starting at point X,Y.
Attaching an 'f' character ("flatten") to the width number will cause
the region to be filled with the average of adjacent blocks rather than
grayed out. If the wipe region and the region outside the wipe region,
when adjusted to the nearest iMCU boundary, form two horizontally
adjacent rectangles, then attaching an 'r' character ("reflect") to the
width number will cause the wipe region to be filled with repeated
reflections of the outside region rather than grayed out.
A lossless drop option is also provided, which allows another JPEG
image to be inserted ("dropped") into the input image data at a given
position, replacing the existing image data at that position:
-drop +X+Y filename
Drop (insert) another image at point X,Y
Both the input image and the drop image must have the same subsampling
level. It is best if they also have the same quantization (quality.)
Otherwise, the quantization of the output image will be adapted to
accommodate the higher of the input image quality and the drop image
quality. The trim option can be used with the drop option to
requantize the drop image to match the input image. Note that a
grayscale image can be dropped into a full-color image or vice versa,
as long as the full-color image has no vertical subsampling. If the
input image is grayscale and the drop image is full-color, then the
chrominance channels from the drop image will be discarded.
Other not-strictly-lossless transformation switches are:
Force grayscale output.
This option discards the chrominance channels if the input image
is YCbCr (ie, a standard color JPEG), resulting in a grayscale
JPEG file. The luminance channel is preserved exactly, so this
is a better method of reducing to grayscale than decompression,
conversion, and recompression. This switch is particularly
handy for fixing a monochrome picture that was mistakenly
encoded as a color JPEG. (In such a case, the space savings
from getting rid of the near-empty chroma channels won't be
large; but the decoding time for a grayscale JPEG is
substantially less than that for a color JPEG.)
jpegtran also recognizes these switches that control what to do with
"extra" markers, such as comment blocks:
Copy no extra markers from source file. This setting suppresses
all comments and other metadata in the source file.
Copy only comment markers. This setting copies comments from
the source file but discards any other metadata.
Copy only ICC profile markers. This setting copies the ICC
profile from the source file but discards any other metadata.
Copy all extra markers. This setting preserves miscellaneous
markers found in the source file, such as JFIF thumbnails, Exif
data, and Photoshop settings. In some files, these extra
markers can be sizable. Note that this option will copy
thumbnails as-is; they will not be transformed.
The default behavior is -copy comments. (Note: in IJG releases v6 and
v6a, jpegtran always did the equivalent of -copy none.)
Additional switches recognized by jpegtran are:
Embed ICC color management profile contained in the specified
file. Note that this will cause jpegtran to ignore any APP2
markers in the input file, even if -copy all or -copy icc is
Set limit for amount of memory to use in processing large
images. Value is in thousands of bytes, or millions of bytes if
"M" is attached to the number. For example, -max 4m selects
4000000 bytes. If more space is needed, an error will occur.
Abort if the input image contains more than N scans. This
feature demonstrates a method by which applications can guard
against denial-of-service attacks instigated by specially-
crafted malformed JPEG images containing numerous scans with
missing image data or image data consisting only of "EOB runs"
(a feature of progressive JPEG images that allows potentially
hundreds of thousands of adjoining zero-value pixels to be
represented using only a few bytes.) Attempting to transform
such malformed JPEG images can cause excessive CPU activity,
since the decompressor must fully process each scan (even if the
scan is corrupt) before it can proceed to the next scan.
Send output image to the named file, not to standard output.
Report transformation progress.
Treat all warnings as fatal. This feature also demonstrates a
method by which applications can guard against attacks
instigated by specially-crafted malformed JPEG images. Enabling
this option will cause the decompressor to abort if the input
image contains incomplete or corrupt image data.
Enable debug printout. More -v's give more output. Also,
version information is printed at startup.
-debug Same as -verbose.
Print version information and exit.
This example converts a baseline JPEG file to progressive form:
jpegtran -progressive foo.jpg > fooprog.jpg
This example rotates an image 90 degrees clockwise, discarding any
unrotatable edge pixels:
jpegtran -rot 90 -trim foo.jpg > foo90.jpg
If this environment variable is set, its value is the default
memory limit. The value is specified as described for the
-maxmemory switch. JPEGMEM overrides the default value
specified when the program was compiled, and itself is
overridden by an explicit -maxmemory.
cjpeg(1), djpeg(1), rdjpgcom(1), wrjpgcom(1)
Wallace, Gregory K. "The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard",
Communications of the ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34, no. 4), pp. 30-44.
Independent JPEG Group
This file was modified by The libjpeg-turbo Project to include only
information relevant to libjpeg-turbo and to wordsmith certain
The transform options can't transform odd-size images perfectly. Use
-trim or -perfect if you don't like the results.
The entire image is read into memory and then written out again, even
in cases where this isn't really necessary. Expect swapping on large
images, especially when using the more complex transform options.
13 July 2021 JPEGTRAN(1)