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PKG(8)                 DragonFly System Manager's Manual                PKG(8)


pkg, pkg-static - manipulate packages


pkg [-v] [-d] [-l] [-N] [-j <chroot path> | -r <root directory>] [-C <configuration file>] [-R <repository configuration directory>] [-4 | -6] <command> <flags> pkg [--version] [--debug] [--list] [-N] [--jail <jail name or id> | --chroot <chroot path> | --rootdir <root directory>] [--config <configuration file>] [--repo-conf-dir <repository configuration directory>] [-4 | -6] <command> <flags>


pkg provides an interface for manipulating packages: registering, adding, removing and upgrading packages. pkg-static is a statically linked variant of pkg typically only used for the initial installation of pkg. There are some differences in functionality. See pkg.conf(5) for details.


The following options are supported by pkg: -v, --version Display the current version of pkg. -d, --debug Show debug information. -l, --list List all the available command names, and exit without performing any other action. The -v option takes precedence over -l but -l will override any other command line arguments. -o <option=value>, --option <option=value> Set configuration option for pkg from the command line. Options that are set from the environment are redefined. It is permitted to specify this option multiple times. -N Activation status check mode. Prevent pkg from automatically creating or initializing the SQLite database in /var/db/pkg/local.sqlite if it does not already exist. Prevent pkg from performing any actions if no packages are currently installed, on the basis that a correctly initialised system using pkg will always have at least the pkg package itself registered. If used without any other arguments, pkg -N will run the sanity tests and if successful print out a short message showing how many packages are currently installed. The exit status should be a reliable indication of whether a system is configured to use pkg as its package management system or not. Example usage: if pkg -N >/dev/null 2>&1; then # pkgng-specifics else # pkg_install-specifics fi The -N flag was first released in the /usr/sbin/pkg bootstrapper in FreeBSD 8.4, but was missing from FreeBSD 9.1. It may not be enough to just call pkg -N, as the bootstrapper may be invoked, or an error returned from pkg. The following script is the safest way to detect if pkg is installed and activated: if TMPDIR=/dev/null ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=yes \ PACKAGESITE=file:///nonexistent \ pkg info -x 'pkg(-devel)?$' >/dev/null 2>&1; then # pkgng-specifics else # pkg_install-specifics fi -c <chroot path>, --chroot <chroot path> pkg will chroot in the <chroot path> environment. -r <root directory>, --rootdir <root directory> pkg will install all packages within the specified <root directory>. -C <configuration file>, --config <configuration file> pkg will use the specified file as a configuration file. -R <repo conf dir>, --repo-conf-dir <repo conf dir> pkg will search the directory for per-repository configuration files. This overrides any value of REPOS_DIR specified in the main configuration file. -4 pkg will use IPv4 for fetching repository and packages. -6 pkg will use IPv6 for fetching repository and packages.


The following commands (or their unambiguous abbreviations) are supported by pkg: help command Display usage information of the specified command. add Install a package from either a local source or a remote one. When installing from remote source you need to specify the protocol to use when fetching the package. Currently supported protocols are FTP, HTTP and HTTPS. annotate Add, modify or delete tag-value style annotations on packages. alias List the command line aliases. audit Audit installed packages against known vulnerabilities. autoremove Delete packages which were automatically installed as dependencies and are not required any more. bootstrap This is for compatibility with the pkg(7) bootstrapper. If pkg is already installed, nothing is done. If invoked with the -f flag an attempt will be made to reinstall pkg from remote repository. check Sanity checks installed packages. clean Clean the local cache of fetched remote packages. convert Convert to and from the old pkg_add(1) format. create Create a package. delete Delete a package from the database and the system. fetch Fetch packages from a remote repository. info Display information about installed packages and package files. install Install a package from a remote package repository. If a package is found in more than one remote repository, then installation happens from the first one. Downloading a package is tried from each package repository in turn, until the package is successfully fetched. lock Prevent modification or deletion of a package. plugins List the available plugins. query Query information about installed packages and package files. register Register a package in the database. repo Create a local package repository for remote usage. rquery Query information for remote repositories. search Search for the given pattern in the remote package repositories. set Modify information in the installed database. shell Open a SQLite shell to the local or remote database. Extreme care should be taken when using this command. shlib Displays which packages link to a specific shared library. stats Display package database statistics. unlock Unlocks packages, allowing them to be modified or deleted. update Update the available remote repositories as listed in pkg.conf(5). updating Display UPDATING entries of installed packages. upgrade Upgrade a package to a newer version. version Summarize installed versions of packages. which Query the database for package(s) that installed a specific file.


All configuration options from pkg.conf(5) can be passed as environment variables. Extra environment variables are: INSTALL_AS_USER Allow all manipulation to be done as a regular user instead of checking for root credentials when appropriate. It is expected that the user will ensure that every file and directory manipulated by pkg are readable (or writable where appropriate) by the user.


See pkg.conf(5).


Search for a package: $ pkg search perl Install a package: Installing must specify a unique origin or version otherwise it will try installing all matches. % pkg install perl-5.14 List installed packages: $ pkg info Upgrade from remote repository: % pkg upgrade Change the origin for an installed package: % pkg set -o lang/perl5.12:lang/perl5.14 % pkg install -Rf lang/perl5.14 List non-automatic packages: $ pkg query -e '%a = 0' %o List automatic packages: $ pkg query -e '%a = 1' %o Delete an installed package: % pkg delete perl-5.14 Remove unneeded dependencies: % pkg autoremove Change a package from automatic to non-automatic, which will prevent autoremove from removing it: % pkg set -A 0 perl-5.14 Change a package from non-automatic to automatic, which will make autoremove allow it be removed once nothing depends on it: % pkg set -A 1 perl-5.14 Create package file from an installed package: % pkg create -o /usr/dports/packages/All perl-5.14 Determine which package installed a file: $ pkg which /usr/local/bin/perl Audit installed packages for security advisories: $ pkg audit Check installed packages for checksum mismatches: # pkg check -s -a Check for missing dependencies: # pkg check -d -a Show the pkg-message of a package: # pkg info -D perl-5.14 Restore a backup database: % rm /var/db/pkg/local.sqlite % xzcat /var/backups/pkg.sql.xz | pkg shell


pkg_create(3), pkg_printf(3), pkg_repos(3), pkg-keywords(5), pkg-lua-script(5), pkg-repository(5), pkg-script(5), pkg-triggers(5), pkg.conf(5), pkg-add(8), pkg-alias(8), pkg-annotate(8), pkg-audit(8), pkg-autoremove(8), pkg-check(8), pkg-clean(8), pkg-config(8), pkg-create(8), pkg-delete(8), pkg-fetch(8), pkg-info(8), pkg-install(8), pkg-lock(8), pkg-query(8), pkg-register(8), pkg-repo(8), pkg-rquery(8), pkg-search(8), pkg-set(8), pkg-shell(8), pkg-shlib(8), pkg-ssh(8), pkg-stats(8), pkg-triggers(8), pkg-update(8), pkg-updating(8), pkg-upgrade(8), pkg-version(8), pkg-which(8) To build your own package set for one or multiple servers see poudriere(8) (ports/ports-mgmt/poudriere). FreeBSD pkg mirror: https://pkg.freebsd.org Your closest pkg mirror based on MaxMind GeoLite geo-DNS.


The pkg command first appeared in FreeBSD 9.1.


Baptiste Daroussin <bapt@FreeBSD.org>, Julien Laffaye <jlaffaye@FreeBSD.org>, Philippe Pepiot <phil@philpep.org>, Will Andrews <will@FreeBSD.org>, Marin Atanasov Nikolov <dnaeon@gmail.com>, Yuri Pankov <yuri.pankov@gmail.com>, Alberto Villa <avilla@FreeBSD.org>, Brad Davis <brd@FreeBSD.org>, Matthew Seaman <matthew@FreeBSD.org>, Bryan Drewery <bryan@shatow.net>, Eitan Adler <eadler@FreeBSD.org>, Romain Tarti`ere <romain@FreeBSD.org>, Vsevolod Stakhov <vsevolod@FreeBSD.org>, Alexandre Perrin <alex@kaworu.ch>


See the issue tracker at https://github.com/freebsd/pkg/issues. Please direct questions and issues to the pkg@FreeBSD.org mailing list. DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT June 29, 2020 DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT PKG-REPOSITORY(5) DragonFly File Formats Manual PKG-REPOSITORY(5)


package repository - format and operation of package repositories used by pkg(8).


Package repositories used by the pkg(8) program consist of one or more collections of "package tarballs" together with package catalogues and optionally various other collected package metadata. Each collection consists of packages suitable for installation on a specific system ABI: a combination of operating system, CPU architecture, OS version, word size, and for certain processors endianness or similar attributes. The package collections are typically made available to users for download via a web or FTP server although various other means of access may be employed. Encoding the ABI value into the repository URL allows pkg to automatically select the correct package collection by expanding the special token ${ABI} in pkg.conf. Repositories may be mirrored over several sites: pkg has built-in support for discovering available mirrors dynamically given a common URL by several mechanisms.


Only very minimal constraints on repository layout are prescribed by pkg. The following constraints are all that must be met: * A repository may contain several package collections with parallel REPOSITORY_ROOTs in order to support diverse system ABIs. * All of the content for one ABI should be accessible in a filesystem or URL hierarchy beneath the REPOSITORY_ROOT. * All packages available beneath one REPOSITORY_ROOT should be binary compatible with a specific system ABI. * The repository catalogue is located at the apex of the repository, at a specific location relative to the REPOSITORY_ROOT. Package catalogues contain the paths relative to the REPOSITORY_ROOT for each package, allowing the full URL for downloading the package to be constructed. Where a package may be applicable to more than one ABI (e.g., it contains only text files) symbolic or hard links, URL mappings or other techniques may be utilised to avoid duplication of storage. Although no specific filesystem organization is required, the usual convention (inherited from pkg-install(8)) is to create a filesystem hierarchy thus: $REPOSITORY_ROOT/All One directory that contains every package available from the repository for that ABI. Packages are stored as package tarballs identified by name and version. This directory may contain several different versions of each package accumulated over time, but the repository catalogue will only record the latest version for each distinct package name. $REPOSITORY_ROOT/Latest/ May contains symbolic links to the latest versions of packages in the All directory. Symbolic links contain a `latest link' style name only, without version. As the whole `latest link' concept is rendered obsolete by pkg, this will usually contain only the pkg.txz link, used for bootstrapping pkg itself on a new system. $REPOSITORY_ROOT/packagesite.txz Contains a single file, usually named packagesite.yaml, a concatenation of the +MANIFEST files from the packages in the repository. Each manifest is represented as a single-line JSON text (no carriage returns or line feeds are used as whitespace within the JSON text), and the manifests are separated by newlines. The complete file is not a valid JSON text. This is used by pkg-1.1 or later. $REPOSITORY_ROOT/repo.txz (Deprecated). Contains the package manifest data as above, but pre-loaded into an SQLite database. This is supplied for backwards compatibility with pkg-1.0. $REPOSITORY_ROOT/filesite.txz (Optional). Contains a single file, usually named filesite.yaml, a concatenation of the file lists from the packages in the repository. Each file list is represented as a single-line JSON text (no carriage returns or line feeds are used as whitespace within the JSON text), and the file lists are concatenated with no delimiters. The complete file is not a valid JSON text. The repository may optionally contain sub-directories corresponding to the package origins within the ports tree. Each of the packages listed in the repository catalogue must have a unique name. There are no other constraints: package sets are not required to be either complete (i.e., with all dependencies satisfied) or self-consistent within a single repository.


pkg uses standard network protocols for repository access. Any URL scheme understood by the fetch(3) library may be used (HTTP, HTTPS, FTP or FILE) as well as remote access over SSH. See fetch(3) for a description of additional environment variables, including FETCH_BIND_ADDRESS, FTP_LOGIN, FTP_PASSIVE_MODE, FTP_PASSWORD, FTP_PROXY, ftp_proxy, HTTP_AUTH, HTTP_PROXY, http_proxy, HTTP_PROXY_AUTH, HTTP_REFERER, HTTP_USER_AGENT, NETRC, NO_PROXY and no_proxy.


Multiple copies of a repository can be provided for resilience or to scale up site capacity. Two schemes are provided to auto-discover sets of mirrors given a single repository URL. HTTP The repository URL should download a text document containing a sequence of lines beginning with `URL:' followed by any amount of white space and one URL for a repository mirror. Any lines not matching this pattern are ignored. Mirrors are tried in the order listed until a download succeeds. SRV For an SRV mirrored repository where the URL is specified as http://pkgrepo.example.org/ SRV records should be set up in the DNS: $ORIGIN example.com _http._tcp.pkgrepo IN SRV 10 1 80 mirror0 IN SRV 20 1 80 mirror1 where the SRV priority and weight parameters are used to control search order and traffic weighting between sites, and the port number and hostname are used to construct the individual mirror URLs. Mirrored repositories are assumed to have identical content, and only one copy of the repository catalogue will be downloaded to apply to all mirror sites.


Where several different repositories are configured pkg will search amongst them all in the order specified by the PRIORITY settings in the repo.conf files, unless directed to use a single repository by the -r flag to pkg-fetch(8), pkg-install(8), pkg-upgrade(8), pkg-search(8) or pkg-rquery(8). Where several different versions of the same package are available, pkg will select the one with the highest version to install or to upgrade an installed package to, even if a lower numbered version can be found in a repository earlier in the list. This applies even if an explicit version is stated on the command line. Thus if packages example-1.0.0 and example-1.0.1 are available in configured repositories, then pkg install example-1.0.0 will actually result in example-1.0.1 being installed. To override this behaviour, on first installation of the package select the repository with the appropriate version: pkg install -r repo-a example-1.0.0 and then to make updates to that package "sticky" to the same repository, set the value CONSERVATIVE_UPGRADE to true in pkg.conf.


pkg_create(3), pkg_printf(3), pkg_repos(3), pkg-keywords(5), pkg-lua-script(5), pkg-script(5), pkg-triggers(5), pkg.conf(5), pkg(8), pkg-add(8), pkg-alias(8), pkg-annotate(8), pkg-audit(8), pkg-autoremove(8), pkg-check(8), pkg-clean(8), pkg-config(8), pkg-create(8), pkg-delete(8), pkg-fetch(8), pkg-info(8), pkg-install(8), pkg-lock(8), pkg-query(8), pkg-register(8), pkg-repo(8), pkg-rquery(8), pkg-search(8), pkg-set(8), pkg-shell(8), pkg-shlib(8), pkg-ssh(8), pkg-stats(8), pkg-triggers(8), pkg-update(8), pkg-updating(8), pkg-upgrade(8), pkg-version(8), pkg-which(8) DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT February 1, 2015 DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT

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