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PKG(8)                 DragonFly System Manager's Manual                PKG(8)


pkg, pkg-static - manipulate packages


pkg [-v] [-d] [-l] [-N] [-j <chroot path> | -r <root directory>] [-C <configuration file>] [-R <repository configuration directory>] [-4 | -6] <command> <flags> pkg [--version] [--debug] [--list] [-N] [--jail <jail name or id> | --chroot <chroot path> | --rootdir <root directory>] [--config <configuration file>] [--repo-conf-dir <repository configuration directory>] [-4 | -6] <command> <flags>


pkg provides an interface for manipulating packages: registering, adding, removing and upgrading packages. pkg-static is a statically linked variant of pkg typically only used for the initial installation of pkg. There are some differences in functionality. See pkg.conf(5) for details.


The following options are supported by pkg: -v, --version Display the current version of pkg. -d, --debug Show debug information. -l, --list List all the available command names, and exit without performing any other action. The -v option takes precedence over -l but -l will override any other command line arguments. -o <option=value>, --option <option=value> Set configuration option for pkg from the command line. Options that are set from the environment are redefined. It is permitted to specify this option multiple times. -N Activation status check mode. Prevent pkg from automatically creating or initializing the SQLite database in /var/db/pkg/local.sqlite if it does not already exist. Prevent pkg from performing any actions if no packages are currently installed, on the basis that a correctly initialised system using pkg will always have at least the pkg package itself registered. If used without any other arguments, pkg -N will run the sanity tests and if successful print out a short message showing how many packages are currently installed. The exit status should be a reliable indication of whether a system is configured to use pkg as its package management system or not. Example usage: if pkg -N >/dev/null 2>&1; then # pkgng-specifics else # pkg_install-specifics fi The -N flag was first released in the /usr/sbin/pkg bootstrapper in FreeBSD 8.4, but was missing from FreeBSD 9.1. It may not be enough to just call pkg -N, as the bootstrapper may be invoked, or an error returned from pkg. The following script is the safest way to detect if pkg is installed and activated: if TMPDIR=/dev/null ASSUME_ALWAYS_YES=yes \ PACKAGESITE=file:///nonexistent \ pkg info -x 'pkg(-devel)?$' >/dev/null 2>&1; then # pkgng-specifics else # pkg_install-specifics fi -c <chroot path>, --chroot <chroot path> pkg will chroot in the <chroot path> environment. -r <root directory>, --rootdir <root directory> pkg will install all packages within the specified <root directory>. -C <configuration file>, --config <configuration file> pkg will use the specified file as a configuration file. -R <repo conf dir>, --repo-conf-dir <repo conf dir> pkg will search the directory for per-repository configuration files. This overrides any value of REPOS_DIR specified in the main configuration file. -4 pkg will use IPv4 for fetching repository and packages. -6 pkg will use IPv6 for fetching repository and packages.


The following commands (or their unambiguous abbreviations) are supported by pkg: help command Display usage information of the specified command. add Install a package from either a local source or a remote one. When installing from remote source you need to specify the protocol to use when fetching the package. Currently supported protocols are FTP, HTTP and HTTPS. annotate Add, modify or delete tag-value style annotations on packages. alias List the command line aliases. audit Audit installed packages against known vulnerabilities. autoremove Delete packages which were automatically installed as dependencies and are not required any more. bootstrap This is for compatibility with the pkg(7) bootstrapper. If pkg is already installed, nothing is done. If invoked with the -f flag an attempt will be made to reinstall pkg from remote repository. check Sanity checks installed packages. clean Clean the local cache of fetched remote packages. convert Convert to and from the old pkg_add(1) format. create Create a package. delete Delete a package from the database and the system. fetch Fetch packages from a remote repository. info Display information about installed packages and package files. install Install a package from a remote package repository. If a package is found in more than one remote repository, then installation happens from the first one. Downloading a package is tried from each package repository in turn, until the package is successfully fetched. lock Prevent modification or deletion of a package. plugins List the available plugins. query Query information about installed packages and package files. register Register a package in the database. repo Create a local package repository for remote usage. rquery Query information for remote repositories. search Search for the given pattern in the remote package repositories. set Modify information in the installed database. shell Open a SQLite shell to the local or remote database. Extreme care should be taken when using this command. shlib Displays which packages link to a specific shared library. stats Display package database statistics. unlock Unlocks packages, allowing them to be modified or deleted. update Update the available remote repositories as listed in pkg.conf(5). updating Display UPDATING entries of installed packages. upgrade Upgrade a package to a newer version. version Summarize installed versions of packages. which Query the database for package(s) that installed a specific file.


All configuration options from pkg.conf(5) can be passed as environment variables. Extra environment variables are: INSTALL_AS_USER Allow all manipulation to be done as a regular user instead of checking for root credentials when appropriate. It is expected that the user will ensure that every file and directory manipulated by pkg are readable (or writable where appropriate) by the user.


See pkg.conf(5).


Search for a package: $ pkg search perl Install a package: Installing must specify a unique origin or version otherwise it will try installing all matches. % pkg install perl-5.14 List installed packages: $ pkg info Upgrade from remote repository: % pkg upgrade Change the origin for an installed package: % pkg set -o lang/perl5.12:lang/perl5.14 % pkg install -Rf lang/perl5.14 List non-automatic packages: $ pkg query -e '%a = 0' %o List automatic packages: $ pkg query -e '%a = 1' %o Delete an installed package: % pkg delete perl-5.14 Remove unneeded dependencies: % pkg autoremove Change a package from automatic to non-automatic, which will prevent autoremove from removing it: % pkg set -A 0 perl-5.14 Change a package from non-automatic to automatic, which will make autoremove allow it be removed once nothing depends on it: % pkg set -A 1 perl-5.14 Create package file from an installed package: % pkg create -o /usr/dports/packages/All perl-5.14 Determine which package installed a file: $ pkg which /usr/local/bin/perl Audit installed packages for security advisories: $ pkg audit Check installed packages for checksum mismatches: # pkg check -s -a Check for missing dependencies: # pkg check -d -a Show the pkg-message of a package: # pkg info -D perl-5.14 Restore a backup database: % rm /var/db/pkg/local.sqlite % xzcat /var/backups/pkg.sql.xz | pkg shell


pkg_create(3), pkg_printf(3), pkg_repos(3), pkg-keywords(5), pkg-lua-script(5), pkg-repository(5), pkg-script(5), pkg-triggers(5), pkg.conf(5), pkg-add(8), pkg-alias(8), pkg-annotate(8), pkg-audit(8), pkg-autoremove(8), pkg-check(8), pkg-clean(8), pkg-config(8), pkg-create(8), pkg-delete(8), pkg-fetch(8), pkg-info(8), pkg-install(8), pkg-lock(8), pkg-query(8), pkg-register(8), pkg-repo(8), pkg-rquery(8), pkg-search(8), pkg-set(8), pkg-shell(8), pkg-shlib(8), pkg-ssh(8), pkg-stats(8), pkg-triggers(8), pkg-update(8), pkg-updating(8), pkg-upgrade(8), pkg-version(8), pkg-which(8) To build your own package set for one or multiple servers see poudriere(8) (ports/ports-mgmt/poudriere). FreeBSD pkg mirror: https://pkg.freebsd.org Your closest pkg mirror based on MaxMind GeoLite geo-DNS.


The pkg command first appeared in FreeBSD 9.1.


Baptiste Daroussin <bapt@FreeBSD.org>, Julien Laffaye <jlaffaye@FreeBSD.org>, Philippe Pepiot <phil@philpep.org>, Will Andrews <will@FreeBSD.org>, Marin Atanasov Nikolov <dnaeon@gmail.com>, Yuri Pankov <yuri.pankov@gmail.com>, Alberto Villa <avilla@FreeBSD.org>, Brad Davis <brd@FreeBSD.org>, Matthew Seaman <matthew@FreeBSD.org>, Bryan Drewery <bryan@shatow.net>, Eitan Adler <eadler@FreeBSD.org>, Romain Tarti`ere <romain@FreeBSD.org>, Vsevolod Stakhov <vsevolod@FreeBSD.org>, Alexandre Perrin <alex@kaworu.ch>


See the issue tracker at https://github.com/freebsd/pkg/issues. Please direct questions and issues to the pkg@FreeBSD.org mailing list. DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT June 29, 2020 DragonFly 6.5-DEVELOPMENT pkg_mkIndex(n) Tcl Built-In Commands pkg_mkIndex(n) ______________________________________________________________________________


pkg_mkIndex - Build an index for automatic loading of packages


pkg_mkIndex ?options...? dir ?pattern pattern ...? ______________________________________________________________________________


Pkg_mkIndex is a utility procedure that is part of the standard Tcl library. It is used to create index files that allow packages to be loaded automatically when package require commands are executed. To use pkg_mkIndex, follow these steps: [1] Create the package(s). Each package may consist of one or more Tcl script files or binary files. Binary files must be suitable for loading with the load command with a single argument; for example, if the file is test.so it must be possible to load this file with the command load test.so. Each script file must contain a package provide command to declare the package and version number, and each binary file must contain a call to Tcl_PkgProvide. [2] Create the index by invoking pkg_mkIndex. The dir argument gives the name of a directory and each pattern argument is a glob-style pattern that selects script or binary files in dir. The default pattern is *.tcl and *.[info sharedlibextension]. Pkg_mkIndex will create a file pkgIndex.tcl in dir with package information about all the files given by the pattern arguments. It does this by loading each file into a child interpreter and seeing what packages and new commands appear (this is why it is essential to have package provide commands or Tcl_PkgProvide calls in the files, as described above). If you have a package split among scripts and binary files, or if you have dependencies among files, you may have to use the -load option or adjust the order in which pkg_mkIndex processes the files. See COMPLEX CASES below. [3] Install the package as a subdirectory of one of the directories given by the tcl_pkgPath variable. If $tcl_pkgPath contains more than one directory, machine-dependent packages (e.g., those that contain binary shared libraries) should normally be installed under the first directory and machine-independent packages (e.g., those that contain only Tcl scripts) should be installed under the second directory. The subdirectory should include the package's script and/or binary files as well as the pkgIndex.tcl file. As long as the package is installed as a subdirectory of a directory in $tcl_pkgPath it will automatically be found during package require commands. If you install the package anywhere else, then you must ensure that the directory containing the package is in the auto_path global variable or an immediate subdirectory of one of the directories in auto_path. Auto_path contains a list of directories that are searched by both the auto-loader and the package loader; by default it includes $tcl_pkgPath. The package loader also checks all of the subdirectories of the directories in auto_path. You can add a directory to auto_path explicitly in your application, or you can add the directory to your TCLLIBPATH environment variable: if this environment variable is present, Tcl initializes auto_path from it during application startup. [4] Once the above steps have been taken, all you need to do to use a package is to invoke package require. For example, if versions 2.1, 2.3, and 3.1 of package Test have been indexed by pkg_mkIndex, the command package require Test will make version 3.1 available and the command package require -exact Test 2.1 will make version 2.1 available. There may be many versions of a package in the various index files in auto_path, but only one will actually be loaded in a given interpreter, based on the first call to package require. Different versions of a package may be loaded in different interpreters.


The optional switches are: -direct The generated index will implement direct loading of the package upon package require. This is the default. -lazy The generated index will manage to delay loading the package until the use of one of the commands provided by the package, instead of loading it immediately upon package require. This is not compatible with the use of auto_reset, and therefore its use is discouraged. -load pkgPat The index process will pre-load any packages that exist in the current interpreter and match pkgPat into the child interpreter used to generate the index. The pattern match uses string match rules, but without making case distinctions. See COMPLEX CASES below. -verbose Generate output during the indexing process. Output is via the tclLog procedure, which by default prints to stderr. -- End of the flags, in case dir begins with a dash. PACKAGES AND THE AUTO-LOADER The package management facilities overlap somewhat with the auto- loader, in that both arrange for files to be loaded on-demand. However, package management is a higher-level mechanism that uses the auto-loader for the last step in the loading process. It is generally better to index a package with pkg_mkIndex rather than auto_mkindex because the package mechanism provides version control: several versions of a package can be made available in the index files, with different applications using different versions based on package require commands. In contrast, auto_mkindex does not understand versions so it can only handle a single version of each package. It is probably not a good idea to index a given package with both pkg_mkIndex and auto_mkindex. If you use pkg_mkIndex to index a package, its commands cannot be invoked until package require has been used to select a version; in contrast, packages indexed with auto_mkindex can be used immediately since there is no version control.


Pkg_mkIndex depends on the package unknown command, the package ifneeded command, and the auto-loader. The first time a package require command is invoked, the package unknown script is invoked. This is set by Tcl initialization to a script that evaluates all of the pkgIndex.tcl files in the auto_path. The pkgIndex.tcl files contain package ifneeded commands for each version of each available package; these commands invoke package provide commands to announce the availability of the package, and they setup auto-loader information to load the files of the package. If the -lazy flag was provided when the pkgIndex.tcl was generated, a given file of a given version of a given package is not actually loaded until the first time one of its commands is invoked. Thus, after invoking package require you may not see the package's commands in the interpreter, but you will be able to invoke the commands and they will be auto-loaded.


Some packages, for instance packages which use namespaces and export commands or those which require special initialization, might select that their package files be loaded immediately upon package require instead of delaying the actual loading to the first use of one of the package's command. This is the default mode when generating the package index. It can be overridden by specifying the -lazy argument.


Most complex cases of dependencies among scripts and binary files, and packages being split among scripts and binary files are handled OK. However, you may have to adjust the order in which files are processed by pkg_mkIndex. These issues are described in detail below. If each script or file contains one package, and packages are only contained in one file, then things are easy. You simply specify all files to be indexed in any order with some glob patterns. In general, it is OK for scripts to have dependencies on other packages. If scripts contain package require commands, these are stubbed out in the interpreter used to process the scripts, so these do not cause problems. If scripts call into other packages in global code, these calls are handled by a stub unknown command. However, if scripts make variable references to other package's variables in global code, these will cause errors. That is also bad coding style. If binary files have dependencies on other packages, things can become tricky because it is not possible to stub out C-level APIs such as Tcl_PkgRequire API when loading a binary file. For example, suppose the BLT package requires Tk, and expresses this with a call to Tcl_PkgRequire in its Blt_Init routine. To support this, you must run pkg_mkIndex in an interpreter that has Tk loaded. You can achieve this with the -load pkgPat option. If you specify this option, pkg_mkIndex will load any packages listed by info loaded and that match pkgPat into the interpreter used to process files. In most cases this will satisfy the Tcl_PkgRequire calls made by binary files. If you are indexing two binary files and one depends on the other, you should specify the one that has dependencies last. This way the one without dependencies will get loaded and indexed, and then the package it provides will be available when the second file is processed. You may also need to load the first package into the temporary interpreter used to create the index by using the -load flag; it will not hurt to specify package patterns that are not yet loaded. If you have a package that is split across scripts and a binary file, then you should avoid the -load flag. The problem is that if you load a package before computing the index it masks any other files that provide part of the same package. If you must use -load, then you must specify the scripts first; otherwise the package loaded from the binary file may mask the package defined by the scripts.




auto-load, index, package, version Tcl 8.3 pkg_mkIndex(n)

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