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rsync(1)                         User Commands                        rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
Local:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull:
rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push:
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST)

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files

The online version of this manpage (that includes cross-linking of

DESCRIPTION
Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It
can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or
to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options
that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its
delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over
the network by sending only the differences between the source files
and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size
or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved
attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file
directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and
permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would
ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
mirroring)

GENERAL
Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
current host (it does not support copying files between two remote
hosts).

There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:
using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION section for an exception to this
latter rule).

As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to
"ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote

Rsync refers to the local side as the client and the remote side as the
server.  Don't confuse server with an rsync daemon.  A daemon is always
a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned
process.

SETUP
See the file README.md for installation instructions.

Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access
via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination
machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp.  You must specify a source
and a destination, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
directory to the directory src on the machine foo.  If any of the files
already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update
protocol is used to update the file by sending only the differences in
the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the command-line
(*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync
and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all other Posix-style
programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
The files are transferred in archive mode, which ensures that symbolic
links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved
in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to reduce the
size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the
containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the
following commands copies the files in the same way, including their
setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing
slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
destination don't have a ':' in the name.  In this case it behaves like
an improved copy command.

Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames. It can,
however, confuse someone when the files are transferred in a different
order than what was given on the command-line.

If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another,
either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
--delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer order, but
does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

MULTI-HOST SECURITY
Rsync takes steps to ensure that the file requests that are shared in a
transfer are protected against various security issues.  Most of the
potential problems arise on the receiving side where rsync takes steps
to ensure that the list of files being transferred remains within the
bounds of what was requested.

Toward this end, rsync 3.1.2 and later have aborted when a file list
contains an absolute or relative path that tries to escape out of the
top of the transfer.  Also, beginning with version 3.2.5, rsync does
two more safety checks of the file list to (1) ensure that no extra
source arguments were added into the transfer other than those that the
client requested and (2) ensure that the file list obeys the exclude
rules that were sent to the sender.

For those that don't yet have a 3.2.5 client rsync (or those that want
to be extra careful), it is safest to do a copy into a dedicated
destination directory for the remote files when you don't trust the
remote host.  For example, instead of doing an rsync copy into your
home directory:

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~

Dedicate a "host1-files" dir to the remote content:

rsync -aiv host1:dir1 ~/host1-files

See the --trust-sender option for additional details.

The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -aiv host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/extra /dest/
rsync -aiv host::modname/first ::modname/extra{1,2} /dest/

Really old versions of rsync (2.6.9 and before) only allowed specifying
one remote-source arg, so some people have instead relied on the
remote-shell performing space splitting to break up an arg into
multiple paths. Such unintuitive behavior is no longer supported by
default (though you can request it, as described below).

Starting in 3.2.4, filenames are passed to a remote shell in such a way
as to preserve the characters you give it. Thus, if you ask for a file
with spaces in the name, that's what the remote rsync looks for:

rsync -aiv host:'a simple file.pdf' /dest/

If you use scripts that have been written to manually apply extra
quoting to the remote rsync args (or to require remote arg splitting),
you can ask rsync to let your script handle the extra escaping.  This
is done by either adding the --old-args option to the rsync runs in the
script (which requires a new rsync) or exporting RSYNC_OLD_ARGS=1 and
RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS=0 (which works with old or new rsync versions).

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
daemon, typically using TCP port 873. (This obviously requires the
daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on
that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you
connect.

o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option (since that overrides
the daemon connection to use ssh -- see USING RSYNC-DAEMON
FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION below).

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication.  If so,
you will receive a password prompt when you connect.  You can avoid the
the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
users.  On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
proxy connections to port 873.

You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
you wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the
targethost (%H).

Note also that if the RSYNC_SHELL environment variable is set, that
program will be used to run the RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG command instead of
using the default shell of the system() call.

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-
shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote
shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to
read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
(For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-
daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
option. (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
functionality.) For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user
value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This
means that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
--rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
used to log-in to the "module".

In this setup, the daemon is started by the ssh command that is
accessing the system (which can be forced via the
~/.ssh/authorized_keys file, if desired).  However, when accessing a
daemon directly, it needs to be started beforehand.

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will
handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage --
that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full
details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd
configurations).

If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how rsync can be used.

To backup a home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and
mail folders, a per-user cron job can be used that runs this each day:

rsync -aiz . bkhost:backup/joe/

To move some files from a remote host to the local host, you could run:

rsync -aiv --remove-source-files rhost:/tmp/{file1,file2}.c ~/src/

OPTION SUMMARY
Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync.  Each option
also has its own detailed description later in this manpage.

--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS             fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS            fine-grained debug verbosity
--stderr=e|a|c           change stderr output mode (default: errors)
--quiet, -q              suppress non-error messages
--no-motd                suppress daemon-mode MOTD
--checksum, -c           skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--archive, -a            archive mode is -rlptgoD (no -A,-X,-U,-N,-H)
--no-OPTION              turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
--recursive, -r          recurse into directories
--relative, -R           use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs        don't send implied dirs with --relative
--backup, -b             make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR         make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX          backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace                update destination files in-place
--append                 append data onto shorter files
--append-verify          --append w/old data in file checksum
--dirs, -d               transfer directories without recursing
--old-dirs, --old-d      works like --dirs when talking to old rsync
--mkpath                 create the destination's path component
--perms, -p              preserve permissions
--fileflags              preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
--executability, -E      preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD            affect file and/or directory permissions
--acls, -A               preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
--xattrs, -X             preserve extended attributes
--owner, -o              preserve owner (super-user only)
--group, -g              preserve group
--devices                preserve device files (super-user only)
--copy-devices           copy device contents as a regular file
--write-devices          write to devices as files (implies --inplace)
--specials               preserve special files
-D                       same as --devices --specials
--times, -t              preserve modification times
--atimes, -U             preserve access (use) times
--open-noatime           avoid changing the atime on opened files
--crtimes, -N            preserve create times (newness)
--omit-dir-times, -O     omit directories from --times
--fake-super             store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
--sparse, -S             turn sequences of nulls into sparse blocks
--preallocate            allocate dest files before writing them
--dry-run, -n            perform a trial run with no changes made
--whole-file, -W         copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
--checksum-choice=STR    choose the checksum algorithm (aka --cc)
--one-file-system, -x    don't cross filesystem boundaries
--block-size=SIZE, -B    force a fixed checksum block-size
--rsh=COMMAND, -e        specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM     specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing               skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing        skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files    sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                    an alias for --delete-during
--delete                 delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before          receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during          receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay           find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after           receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded        also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args    ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args    delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors          delete even if there are I/O errors
--force-delete           force deletion of directories even if not empty
--force-change           affect user-/system-immutable files/dirs
--force-uchange          affect user-immutable files/dirs
--force-schange          affect system-immutable files/dirs
--max-delete=NUM         don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE          don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--max-alloc=SIZE         change a limit relating to memory alloc
--partial                keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR        put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates          put all updated files into place at end
--prune-empty-dirs, -m   prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids            don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING        custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS        set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS     set daemon connection timeout in seconds
--ignore-times, -I       don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only              skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM, -@  set the accuracy for mod-time comparisons
--temp-dir=DIR, -T       create temporary files in directory DIR
--fuzzy, -y              find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR       also compare destination files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR          ... and include copies of unchanged files
--compress, -z           compress file data during the transfer
--compress-choice=STR    choose the compression algorithm (aka --zc)
--compress-level=NUM     explicitly set compression level (aka --zl)
--skip-compress=LIST     skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
--cvs-exclude, -C        auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
--filter=RULE, -f        add a file-filtering RULE
-F                       same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN        exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE      read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN        don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE      read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE        read list of source-file names from FILE
--from0, -0              all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
--old-args               disable the modern arg-protection idiom
--protect-args, -s       no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--trust-sender           trust the remote sender's file list
--copy-as=USER[:GROUP]   specify user & optional group for the copy
--port=PORT              specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io            use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B           set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                  give some file-transfer stats
--8-bit-output, -8       leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress               show progress during transfer
-P                       same as --partial --progress
--itemize-changes, -i    output a change-summary for all updates
--remote-option=OPT, -M  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT      output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE          log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT    log updates using the specified FMT
--early-input=FILE       use FILE for daemon's early exec input
--list-only              list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--stop-after=MINS        Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
--stop-at=y-m-dTh:m      Stop rsync at the specified point in time
--fsync                  fsync every written file
--write-batch=FILE       write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE  like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM           force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC     request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM      set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--version, -V            print the version + other info and exit
--help, -h (*)           show this help (* -h is help only on its own)

Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
are accepted:

--daemon                 run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE           limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE            specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M    override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach              do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT              listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE          override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT    override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS       specify custom TCP options
--verbose, -v            increase verbosity
--ipv4, -4               prefer IPv4
--ipv6, -6               prefer IPv6
--help, -h               show this help (when used with --daemon)

OPTIONS
Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
letter) options.  The full list of the available options are described
below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long variant, not a
short.

If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after the
long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.
When specifying a parameter, you can either use the form
--option=param, --option param, -o=param, -o param, or -oparam (the
latter choices assume that your option has a short variant).

The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive
the shell's command-line parsing.  Also keep in mind that a leading
tilde (~) in a pathname is substituted by your shell, so make sure that
you separate the option name from the pathname using a space if you
want the local shell to expand it.

--help Print a short help page describing the options available in
rsync and exit.  You can also use -h for --help when it is used
without any other options (since it normally means --human-

--version, -V
Print the rsync version plus other info and exit.

The output includes the default list of checksum algorithms, the
default list of compression algorithms, a list of compiled-in
capabilities, a link to the rsync web site, and some

--verbose, -v
This option increases the amount of information you are given
during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently.  A
single -v will give you information about what files are being
transferred and a brief summary at the end.  Two -v options will
give you information on what files are being skipped and
should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

The end-of-run summary tells you the number of bytes sent to the
remote rsync (which is the receiving side on a local copy), the
number of bytes received from the remote host, and the average
bytes per second of the transferred data computed over the
entire length of the rsync run. The second line shows the total
size (in bytes), which is the sum of all the file sizes that
rsync considered transferring.  It also shows a "speedup" value,
which is a ratio of the total file size divided by the sum of
the sent and received bytes (which is really just a feel-good
bigger-is-better number).  Note that these byte values can be

In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to use
--verbose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied
settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for
help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase
in verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
will limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then
any info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher value than
what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in
the daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
information output you want to see.  An individual flag name may
be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
increasing the output of that flag (for those that support
higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag
names, what they output, and what flag names are added for each
increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format
and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
information on what is output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1
being the default output level, and higher numbers increasing
the output of that flag (for those that support higher levels).
Use --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the
verbose level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note that some debug messages will only be output when the
--stderr=all option is specified, especially those pertaining to
I/O and buffer debugging.

Beginning in 3.2.0, this option is no longer auto-forwarded to
the server side in order to allow you to specify different debug
values for each side of the transfer, as well as to specify a
new debug option that is only present in one of the rsync
versions.  If you want to duplicate the same option on both
sides, using brace expansion is an easy way to save you some
typing.  This works in zsh and bash:

rsync -aiv {-M,}--debug=del2 src/ dest/

--stderr=errors|all|client
This option controls which processes output to stderr and if
info messages are also changed to stderr.  The mode strings can
be abbreviated, so feel free to use a single letter value.  The
3 possible choices are:

o      errors - (the default) causes all the rsync processes to
send an error directly to stderr, even if the process is
on the remote side of the transfer.  Info messages are
sent to the client side via the protocol stream.  If
stderr is not available (i.e. when directly connecting
with a daemon via a socket) errors fall back to being
sent via the protocol stream.

o      all - causes all rsync messages (info and error) to get
written directly to stderr from all (possible) processes.
This causes stderr to become line-buffered (instead of
raw) and eliminates the ability to divide up the info and
error messages by file handle.  For those doing debugging
or using several levels of verbosity, this option can
help to avoid clogging up the transfer stream (which
should prevent any chance of a deadlock bug hanging
things up).  It also allows --debug to enable some extra
I/O related messages.

o      client - causes all rsync messages to be sent to the
client side via the protocol stream.  One client process
outputs all messages, with errors on stderr and info
messages on stdout.  This was the default in older rsync
versions, but can cause error delays when a lot of
transfer data is ahead of the messages.  If you're
pushing files to an older rsync, you may want to use
--stderr=all since that idiom has been around for several
releases.

This option was added in rsync 3.2.3.  This version also began
the forwarding of a non-default setting to the remote side,
though rsync uses the backward-compatible options --msgs2stderr
and --no-msgs2stderr to represent the all and client settings,
respectively.  A newer rsync will continue to accept these older
option names to maintain compatibility.

--quiet, -q
This option decreases the amount of information you are given
during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
from the remote server.  This option is useful when invoking
rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This option affects the information that is output by the client
at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
(due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

--ignore-times, -I
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same
size and have the same modification timestamp.  This option
turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be
updated.

This option can be confusing compared to --ignore-existing and
--ignore-non-existing in that that they cause rsync to transfer
fewer files, while this option causes rsync to transfer more
files.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
modified time to just looking for files that have changed in
size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps
exactly.

--modify-window=NUM, -@
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
value.  The default is 0, which matches just integer seconds.
If you specify a negative value (and the receiver is at least
version 3.1.3) then nanoseconds will also be taken into account.
Specifying 1 is useful for copies to/from MS Windows FAT
filesystems, because FAT represents times with a 2-second
resolution (allowing times to differ from the original by up to
1 second).

If you want all your transfers to default to comparing
nanoseconds, you can create a ~/.popt file and put these lines
in it:

rsync alias -a -a@-1
rsync alias -t -t@-1

With that as the default, you'd need to specify --modify-
window=0 (aka -@0) to override it and ignore nanoseconds, e.g.
if you're copying between ext3 and ext4, or if the receiving
rsync is older than 3.1.3.

--checksum, -c
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
file that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the
data in the files in the transfer, so this can slow things down
significantly (and this is prior to any reading that will be
done to transfer changed files)

The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.
The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for
changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
as the corresponding sender's file: files with either a changed
size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a
whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is
transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer verification
has nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does
this file need to be updated?" check.

The checksum used is auto-negotiated between the client and the
server, but can be overridden using either the --checksum-choice
(--cc) option or an environment variable that is discussed in
that option's section.

--archive, -a
This is equivalent to -rlptgoD.  It is a quick way of saying you
want recursion and want to preserve almost everything.  Be aware
that it does not include preserving ACLs (-A), xattrs (-X),
atimes (-U), crtimes (-N), nor the finding and preserving of
hardlinks (-H).  It also does not imply --fileflags.

The only exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from
is specified, in which case -r is not implied.

--no-OPTION
You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
option name with "no-".  Not all positive options have a negated
opposite, but a lot do, including those that can be used to
disable an implied option (e.g.  --no-D, --no-perms) or have
different defaults in various circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-
file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  Every valid negated option
accepts both the short and the long option name after the "no-"
prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

As an example, if you want to use --archive (-a) but don't want
--owner (-o), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you can
specify -a --no-o (aka --archive --no-owner).

The order of the options is important: if you specify --no-r -a,
the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
-a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
--files-from option for more details).

--recursive, -r
--dirs (-d) for an option that allows the scanning of a single
directory.

See the --inc-recursive option for a discussion of the
incremental recursion for creating the list of files to
transfer.

--inc-recursive, --i-r
This option explicitly enables on incremental recursion when
scanning for files, which is enabled by default when using the
--recursive option and both sides of the transfer are running

Incremental recursion uses much less memory than non-
incremental, while also beginning the transfer more quickly
(since it doesn't need to scan the entire transfer hierarchy
before it starts transferring files).  If no recursion is
enabled in the source files, this option has no effect.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:

o      --delete-before (the old default of --delete)

o      --delete-after

o      --prune-empty-dirs

In order to make --delete compatible with incremental recursion,
rsync 3.0.0 made --delete-during the default delete mode (which

One side-effect of incremental recursion is that any missing
sub-directories inside a recursively-scanned directory are (by
default) created prior to recursing into the sub-dirs.  This
earlier creation point (compared to a non-incremental recursion)
allows rsync to then set the modify time of the finished
directory right away (without having to delay that until a bunch
of recursive copying has finished).  However, these early
directories don't yet have their completed mode, mtime, or
ownership set -- they have more restrictive rights until the
subdirectory's copying actually begins.  This early-creation
idiom can be avoiding by using the --omit-dir-times option.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-
recursive (--no-i-r) option.

--no-inc-recursive, --no-i-r
Disables the new incremental recursion algorithm of the
--recursive option.  This makes rsync scan the full file list
before it begins to transfer files.  See --inc-recursive for

--relative, -R
Use relative paths.  This means that the full path names
specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
just the last parts of the filenames.  This is particularly
useful when you want to send several different directories at
the same time.  For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine.

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and
the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the
symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real path.
If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you
may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine. (Note
that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
be abbreviated.) For older rsync versions, you would need to use
a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
commands.) If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
directories from the source names are not included in the
transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on
the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
This even allows these implied path elements to have big
differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the
receiving side.

For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories
"path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
"path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
as a directory, and receive the file into the new directory.
With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates
"path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means
that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
to accomplish this link preservation is to use the --keep-
in the rest of the transfer).

When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
you request and you wish the implied directories to be
transferred as normal directories.

--backup, -b
With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

If you don't specify --backup-dir:

1.     the --omit-dir-times option will be forced on

2.     the use of --delete (without --delete-excluded), causes
rsync to add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup
suffix to the end of all your existing filters that looks
like this: -f "P *~".  This rule prevents previously
backed-up files from being deleted.

Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you may
need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere
higher up in the list so that it has a high enough priority to
be effective (e.g. if your rules specify a trailing
inclusion/exclusion of *, the auto-added rule would never be
reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
This implies the --backup option, and tells rsync to store all
backups in the specified directory on the receiving side.  This
can be used for incremental backups.  You can additionally
specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the
files backed up in the specified directory will keep their
original filenames).

Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts
with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir
cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra
care not to delete it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This option allows you to override the default backup suffix
used with the --backup (-b) option.  The default suffix is a ~
if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty
string.

--update, -u
This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
destination and have a modified time that is newer than the
source file. (If an existing destination file has a modification
time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes
are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
other special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
the sender and receiver is always considered to be important
enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the
timestamps.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side
effects.

A caution for those that choose to combine --inplace with
--update: an interrupted transfer will leave behind a partial
file on the receiving side that has a very recent modified time,
so re-running the transfer will probably not continue the
interrupted file.  As such, it is usually best to avoid
combining this with --inplace unless you have implemented manual
steps to handle any interrupted in-progress files.

--inplace
This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data
needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will
be visible through other hard links to the destination
file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
"tug of war" with the destination data changing back and
forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during
the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
interrupted or if an update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.
While a super user can update any file, a normal user
needs to be granted write permission for the open of the
file for writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
reduced if some data in the destination file is
overwritten before it can be copied to a position later
in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,
since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the
basis file for the transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use
this for a copy.

This option is useful for transferring large files with block-
based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are
disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a copy-on-
write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire contents of
a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
--delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also

--append
This special copy mode only works to efficiently update files
that are known to be growing larger where any existing content
on the receiving side is also known to be the same as the
content on the sender.  The use of --append can be dangerous if
you aren't 100% sure that all the files in the transfer are
shared, growing files.  You should thus use filter rules to
ensure that you weed out any files that do not fit this
criteria.

Rsync updates these growing file in-place without verifying any
of the existing content in the file (it only verifies the
content that it is appending).  Rsync skips any files that exist
on the receiving side that are not shorter than the associated
file on the sending side (which means that new files are
transferred).  It also skips any files whose size on the sending
side gets shorter during the send negotiations (rsync warns
about a "diminished" file when this happens).

This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-
content attributes (e.g.  permissions, ownership, etc.) when the
file does not need to be transferred, nor does it affect the
updating of any directories or non-regular files.

--append-verify
This special copy mode works like --append except that all the
data in the file is included in the checksum verification
(making it less efficient but also potentially safer).  This
option can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure that all the
files in the transfer are shared, growing files.  See the
--append option for more details.

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
--append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync
(or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

--dirs, -d
Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
trailing slash (e.g.  ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all
directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect
for each one).  If you specify both --dirs and --recursive,
--recursive takes precedence.

The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
--list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
--recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in
the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
this off.

There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
(--old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of -r --exclude='/*/*'
to get an older rsync to list a single directory without
recursing.

--mkpath
Create a missing path component of the destination arg.  This
allows rsync to create multiple levels of missing destination
dirs and to create a path in which to put a single renamed file.
Keep in mind that you'll need to supply a trailing slash if you
want the entire destination path to be treated as a directory
when copying a single arg (making rsync behave the same way that
existed).

For example, the following creates a copy of file foo as bar in
the sub/dir directory, creating dirs "sub" and "sub/dir" if
either do not yet exist:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar

If you instead ran the following, it would have created file foo
in the sub/dir/bar directory:

rsync -ai --mkpath foo sub/dir/bar/

ignoring them with a "non-regular file" warning for each symlink
encountered.  You can alternately silence the warning by
specifying --info=nonreg0.

unchanged value on the receiving side.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

The sender transforms each symlink encountered in the transfer
into the referent item, following the symlink chain to the file
or directory that it references.  If a symlink chain is broken,
an error is output and the file is dropped from the transfer.

This option supersedes any other options that affect symlinks in
the transfer, since there are no symlinks left in the transfer.

This option does not change the handling of existing symlinks on
the receiving side, unlike versions of rsync prior to 2.6.3
which had the side-effect of telling the receiving side to also
so this caveat should only affect someone using an rsync client
older than 2.6.7 (which is when -L stopped being forwarded to

directory to be treated as a real directory on the receiving
side.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that
point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also
treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
source path itself when --relative is used.

Note that the cut-off point is the top of the transfer, which is
the part of the path that rsync isn't mentioning in the verbose
output.  If you copy "/src/subdir" to "/dest/" then the "subdir"
directory is a name inside the transfer tree, not the top of the
transfer (which is /src) so it is legal for created relative
symlinks to refer to other names inside the /src and /dest
directories.  If you instead copy "/src/subdir/" (with a
trailing slash) to "/dest/subdir" that would not allow symlinks
to any files outside of "subdir".

specified or implied. The --copy-unsafe-links option has no
extra effect when combined with --copy-links.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This tells the receiving rsync to ignore any symbolic links in
the transfer which point outside the copied tree.  All absolute

Since this ignoring is happening on the receiving side, it will
still be effective even when the sending side has munged
deletions, since the file being present in the transfer prevents
any matching file on the receiver from being deleted when the
symlink is deemed to be unsafe and is skipped.

This option must be combined with --links (or --archive) to have
any symlinks in the transfer to conditionally ignore. Its effect

Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give
unexpected results.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This option affects just one side of the transfer and tells
rsync to munge symlink values when it is receiving files or
unmunge symlink values when it is sending files.  The munged
values make the symlinks unusable on disk but allows the
original contents of the symlinks to be recovered.

The server-side rsync often enables this option without the
client's knowledge, such as in an rsync daemon's configuration
file or by an option given to the rrsync (restricted rsync)
script.  When specified on the client side, specify the option
normally if it is the client side that has/needs the munged
server when it has/needs the munged symlinks.  Note that on a
local transfer, the client is the sender, so specifying the
option directly unmunges symlinks while specifying it as a

This option has no effect when sent to a daemon via --remote-
option because the daemon configures whether it wants munged

The symlink value is munged/unmunged once it is in the transfer,
prior to the munging/unmunging except for --safe-links, which is
a choice that the receiver makes, so it bases its decision on
the munged/unmunged value.  This does mean that if a receiver
has munging enabled, that using --safe-links will cause all
symlinks to be ignored (since they are all absolute).

The method that rsync uses to munge the symlinks is to prefix
each one's value with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This
prevents the links from being used as long as the directory does
not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to
run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory
symlinks" python script in the support directory of the source
code for a way to munge/unmunge one or more symlinks in-place.

This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as

Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a
directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
a directory hierarchy (as long as --force-delete or --delete is
in effect).

receiving side.

source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up
right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
directory.

For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that
contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory
the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the

One note of caution: if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
on the receiving side!  If it is possible for an untrusted user
to create their own symlink to any real directory, the user
could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with a
real directory and affect the content of whatever directory the
symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off using
something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify your
receiving hierarchy.

side.

See the SYMBOLIC LINKS section for multi-option info.

This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
link together the corresponding files on the destination.
Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
as though they were separate files.

This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
links on the destination exactly matches that on the source.
Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
include the following:

o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
linking than what is present in the source file list),
the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.
However, if one or more of the paths have content
differences, the normal file-update process will break
those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace
option).

o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
--link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
associations.

Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that
are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
your files are being updated so that you are certain that no
unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see
the --inplace option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --inc-recursive), rsync
may transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that
another link for that contents exists elsewhere in the
hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of the transfer
(i.e. which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency
(i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked
file that could have been found later in the transfer in another
member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this
inefficiency is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-
inc-recursive option.

--perms, -p
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
existing permissions, though the --executability option
might change just the execute permission for the file.

o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
source file's permissions masked with the receiving
directory's default permissions (either the receiving
process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
destination directory's default ACL), and their special
permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent
directory.

Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled,
rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy
utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
--chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this
one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-
enable the two --no-* options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-
created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync
2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three
special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a
newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was added to
the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
these behaviors.)

--executability, -E
This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
source file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
'x' permissions.

o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission
enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

--acls, -A
This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not
compatible.

--xattrs, -X
This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
attributes to be the same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except
system.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To
be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
user, see the --fake-super option.

The above name filtering can be overridden by using one or more
filter options with the x modifier.  When you specify an xattr-
affecting filter rule, rsync requires that you do your own
system/user filtering, as well as any additional filtering for
what xattr names are copied and what names are allowed to be
deleted.  For example, to skip the system namespace, you could
specify:

--filter='-x system.*'

To skip all namespaces except the user namespace, you could
specify a negated-user match:

--filter='-x! user.*'

To prevent any attributes from being deleted, you could specify
a receiver-only rule that excludes all names:

--filter='-xr *'

Note that the -X option does not copy rsync's special xattr
values (e.g.  those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the
option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used
with --fake-super.

--fileflags
This option causes rsync to update the file-flags to be the same
as the source files and directories (if your OS supports the
chflags(2) system call).   Some flags can only be altered by the
super-user and some might only be unset below a certain secure-
level (usually single-user mode). It will not make files
alterable that are set to immutable on the receiver.  To do
that, see --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

--force-change
This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and
system-immutable flags on files and directories that are being
updated or deleted on the receiving side.  This option overrides
--force-uchange and --force-schange.

--force-uchange
This option causes rsync to disable user-immutable flags on
files and directories that are being updated or deleted on the
receiving side.  It does not try to affect system flags.  This
option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

--force-schange
This option causes rsync to disable system-immutable flags on
files and directories that are being updated or deleted on the
receiving side.  It does not try to affect user flags.  This
option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange.

--chmod=CHMOD
This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
"chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.
The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that
this option can seem to have no effect on existing files if
--perms is not enabled.

In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the
chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
For example, the following will ensure that all directories get
marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
executability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
additional option is just appended to the list of changes to
make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the
resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the
transfer.

--owner, -o
This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination
file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
--super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the
owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking
user on the receiving side.

The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
discussion).

--group, -g
This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination
file to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving
program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was
specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
group is set to the default group of the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The preservation of group information will associate matching
names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  If the
receiving rsync is not being run as the super-user, rsync
and --fake-super options).

By default, rsync generates a "non-regular file" warning for
each device file encountered when this option is not set.  You
can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files, such as
named sockets and fifos.  If the receiving rsync is not being
run as the super-user, rsync silently skips creating the special

By default, rsync generates a "non-regular file" warning for
each special file encountered when this option is not set.  You
can silence the warning by specifying --info=nonreg0.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to "--devices --specials".

--copy-devices
This tells rsync to treat a device on the sending side as a
regular file, allowing it to be copied to a normal destination
file (or another device if --write-devices was also specified).

This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

--write-devices
This tells rsync to treat a device on the receiving side as a
regular file, allowing the writing of file data into a device.

This option implies the --inplace option.

Be careful using this, as you should know what devices are
present on the receiving side of the transfer, especially when
running rsync as root.

This option is refused by default by an rsync daemon.

--times, -t
This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that
have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
missing -t (or -a) will cause the next transfer to behave as if
it used --ignore-times (-I), causing all files to be updated
(though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make the update
fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed, you're
much better off using -t).

--atimes, -U
This tells rsync to set the access (use) times of the
destination files to the same value as the source files.

If repeated, it also sets the --open-noatime option, which can
help you to make the sending and receiving systems have the same
access times on the transferred files without needing to run
rsync an extra time after a file is transferred.

Note that some older rsync versions (prior to 3.2.0) may have
been built with a pre-release --atimes patch that does not imply
--open-noatime when this option is repeated.

--open-noatime
This tells rsync to open files with the O_NOATIME flag (on
systems that support it) to avoid changing the access time of
the files that are being transferred.  If your OS does not
support the O_NOATIME flag then rsync will silently ignore this
option.  Note also that some filesystems are mounted to avoid
updating the atime on read access even without the O_NOATIME
flag being set.

--crtimes, -N,
This tells rsync to set the create times (newness) of the
destination files to the same value as the source files.

--omit-dir-times, -O
This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
modification, access, and create times.  If NFS is sharing the
directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-
dir.

This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation
of missing sub-directories when incremental recursion is
enabled, as discussed in the --inc-recursive section.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
modification, access, and create times.

--super
This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via
the --group option, and copying devices via the --devices
option.  This is useful for systems that allow such activities
without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you
will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the
super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user
can use --no-super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user
activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as
needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it is not
the default), the file's device info (device & special files are
created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we
won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g. the real file gets
u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's access
(since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,
and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option
is used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell
connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option
just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you
wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

file.

--sparse, -S
Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less
space on the destination.  If combined with --inplace the file
created might not end up with sparse blocks with some
combinations of kernel version and/or filesystem type.  If
--whole-file is in effect (e.g. for a local copy) then it will
always work because rsync truncates the file prior to writing
out the updated version.

Note that versions of rsync older than 3.1.3 will reject the
combination of --sparse and --inplace.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
not the slow glibc implementation that writes a null byte into
each block.

Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting
filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
no positive effect at all.

If combined with --sparse, the file will only have sparse blocks
(as opposed to allocated sequences of null bytes) if the kernel
version and filesystem type support creating holes in the
allocated data.

--dry-run, -n
This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any
changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
is most commonly used in combination with the --verbose (-v)
and/or --itemize-changes (-i) options to see what an rsync
command is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for
file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
"bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
where no file transfers were needed.

--whole-file, -W
This option disables rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which
causes all transferred files to be sent whole.  The transfer may
be faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
destination are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-
writing option is in effect.

--no-whole-file, --no-W
Disable whole-file updating when it is enabled by default for a
local transfer.  This usually slows rsync down, but it can be
useful if you are trying to minimize the writes to the
destination file (if combined with --inplace) or for testing the
checksum-based update algorithm.

--checksum-choice=STR, --cc=STR
This option overrides the checksum algorithms.  If one algorithm
name is specified, it is used for both the transfer checksums
and (assuming --checksum is specified) the pre-transfer
checksums.  If two comma-separated names are supplied, the first
name affects the transfer checksums, and the second name affects
the pre-transfer checksums (-c).

The checksum options that you may be able to use are:

o      auto (the default automatic choice)

o      xxh128

o      xxh3

o      xxh64 (aka xxhash)

o      md5

o      md4

o      none

Run rsync --version to see the default checksum list compiled
into your version (which may differ from the list above).

If "none" is specified for the first (or only) name, the
--whole-file option is forced on and no checksum verification is
performed on the transferred data.  If "none" is specified for
the second (or only) name, the --checksum option cannot be used.

The "auto" option is the default, where rsync bases its
algorithm choice on a negotiation between the client and the
server as follows:

When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync
chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that
is also in the server's list of choices.  If no common checksum
choice is found, rsync exits with an error.  If the remote rsync
is too old to support checksum negotiation, a value is chosen
based on the protocol version (which chooses between MD5 and
various flavors of MD4 based on protocol age).

The default order can be customized by setting the environment
variable RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST to a space-separated list of
acceptable checksum names.  If the string contains a "&"
character, it is separated into the "client string & server
string", otherwise the same string applies to both.  If the
string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace
characters, the default checksum list is used.  This method does
not allow you to specify the transfer checksum separately from
the pre-transfer checksum, and it discards "auto" and all
unknown checksum names.  A list with only invalid names results
in a failed negotiation.

The use of the --checksum-choice option overrides this
environment list.

--one-file-system, -x
This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
the same device as being on the same filesystem.

If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the
attributes of the mounted directory because those of the
underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
unaffected by this option.

--ignore-non-existing, --existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
extraneous files).

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side
effects.

--ignore-existing
This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on
the destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side
effects.

This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
--link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that
got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using [--ignore-
existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get
tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

When --info=skip2 is used rsync will output "FILENAME exists
(INFO)" messages where the INFO indicates one of "type change",
"sum change" (requires -c), "file change" (based on the quick
check), "attr change", or "uptodate".  Using --info=skip1 (which
is also implied by 2 -v options) outputs the exists message
without the INFO suffix.

--remove-source-files
This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
(meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and
have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

Note that you should only use this option on source files that
are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that
the finished files get renamed into the source directory, not
directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
the files into a different directory, you should use a naming
idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
finished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it is written,
rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then use the option
--exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal
(and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not
stayed unchanged.

--delete
This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent
directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side
(see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
--recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly! It is a very
good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run (-n) option to
see what files are going to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.
This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
errors) on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
files on the destination.  You can override this with the
--ignore-errors option.

The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-
WHEN options without conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.
However, if none of the --delete-WHEN options are specified,
rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking to
rsync 3.0.0 or newer, or the --delete-before algorithm when
--delete-after.

--delete-before
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
more details on file-deletion.

Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is
tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay
before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also
forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
memory at once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
being updated.  This option was first added in rsync version
2.6.4.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on
file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be
computed during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then
removed after the transfer completes.  This is useful when
combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,
since --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate pass
after all updates are done).  If the number of removed files
overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will be created
on the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while
open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the
creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall
back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive
is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied)
for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
--recursive). See --delete (which is implied) for more details
on file-deletion.

for those that just want the deletions to occur at the end of
the transfer.

--delete-excluded
This option turns any unqualified exclude/include rules into
server-side rules that do not affect the receiver's deletions.

By default, an exclude or include has both a server-side effect
(to "hide" and "show" files when building the server's file
list) and a receiver-side effect (to "protect" and "risk" files
when deletions are occuring).  Any rule that has no modifier to
specify what sides it is executed on will be instead treated as
if it were a server-side rule only, avoiding any "protect"
effects of the rules.

A rule can still apply to both sides even with this option
specified if the rule is given both the sender & receiver
modifer letters (e.g., -f'-sr foo').  Receiver-side protect/risk
rules can also be explicitly specified to limit the deletions.
This saves you from having to edit a bunch of -f'- foo' rules
into -f'-s foo' (aka -f'H foo') rules (not to mention the
corresponding includes).

(which is implied) for more details on deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
files (e.g.  command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option
suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file.
This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of the (implied) --ignore-
missing-args option a step farther: each missing arg will become
a deletion request of the corresponding destination file on the
receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if
--force-delete or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this
option is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list
entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only
output.

--ignore-errors
Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
I/O errors.

--force-delete, --force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

Note that some older rsync versions used to require --force when
using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional unless
the --recursive option was also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
directories.  If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions
are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync
outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)
and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important
error condition also occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
be warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as
"unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client is,
you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-
compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though
really old versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
than the specified SIZE.  A numeric value can be suffixed with a
string to indicate the numeric units or left unqualified to
specify bytes.  Feel free to use a fractional value along with
the units, such as --max-size=1.5m.

This option is a TRANSFER RULE, so don't expect any exclude side
effects.

The first letter of a units string can be B (bytes), K (kilo), M
(mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta).  If the string is a
single char or has "ib" added to it (e.g. "G" or "GiB") then the
units are multiples of 1024.  If you use a two-letter suffix
that ends with a "B" (e.g. "kb") then you get units that are
multiples of 1000.  The string's letters can be any mix of upper
and lower-case that you want to use.

Finally, if the string ends with either "+1" or "-1", it is
offset by one byte in the indicated direction.  The largest
possible value is usually 8192P-1.

Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and --max-
size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-
size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring
small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
of SIZE and other info.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-
size=0.

--max-alloc=SIZE
By default rsync limits an individual malloc/realloc to about
1GB in size.  For most people this limit works just fine and
prevents a protocol error causing rsync to request massive
amounts of memory.  However, if you have many millions of files
in a transfer, a large amount of server memory, and you don't
want to split up your transfer into multiple parts, you can
increase the per-allocation limit to something larger and rsync
will consume more memory.

Keep in mind that this is not a limit on the total size of
allocated memory.  It is a sanity-check value for each
individual allocation.

See the --max-size option for a description of how SIZE can be
specified.  The default suffix if none is given is bytes.

Beginning in 3.2.3, a value of 0 specifies no limit.

You can set a default value using the environment variable
RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC using the same SIZE values as supported by this
option.  If the remote rsync doesn't understand the --max-alloc
option, you can override an environmental value by specifying
--max-alloc=1g, which will make rsync avoid sending the option
to the remote side (because "1G" is the default).

--block-size=SIZE, -B
This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer
algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on
the size of each file being updated.  See the technical report
for details.

Beginning in 3.2.3 the SIZE can be specified with a suffix as
detailed in the --max-size option.  Older versions only accepted
a byte count.

--rsh=COMMAND, -e
This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
program to use for communication between the local and remote
copies of rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that
remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
the USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
section above.

Beginning with rsync 3.2.0, the RSYNC_PORT environment variable
will be set when a daemon connection is being made via a remote-
shell connection.  It is set to 0 if the default daemon port is
being assumed, or it is set to the value of the rsync port that
was specified via either the --port option or a non-empty port
value in an rsync:// URL.  This allows the script to discern if
a non-default port is being requested, allowing for things such
as an SSL or stunnel helper script to connect to a default or
alternate port.

Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must
use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the
command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not
backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a
single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes
your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as
-e.

option.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
default remote-shell's path (e.g. --rsync-
path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the
help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or command
sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the
standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

One tricky example is to set a different default directory on
the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For
instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

--remote-option=OPTION, -M
This option is used for more advanced situations where you want
certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and --fake-
super to the remote system, specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
to the remote side.  Like this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option
that will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
cryptic fashion.

Note that you should use a separate -M option for each remote
option you want to pass.  On older rsync versions, the presence
of any spaces in the remote-option arg could cause it to be
split into separate remote args, but this requires the use of
--old-args in a modern rsync.

When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
and the "remote" side is the receiver.

Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an
equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g. -M--log-
file=/tmp/foo).  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

--cvs-exclude, -C
This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
that you often don't want to transfer between systems.  It uses
a similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be
ignored.

The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
(these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
RULES section):

RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state
.nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig
*.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln
core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command- line. This makes them a lower priority than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one- time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. --filter=RULE, -f This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that specifies an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. This is equivalent to specifying -f'- PATTERN'. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "* " (plus, space), then the type of rule is being explicitly specified as an exclude or an include (respectively). Any rules without such a prefix are taken to be an exclude. If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter rules are cleared before adding any further rules. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that specifies an include rule and does not allow the full rule- parsing syntax of normal filter rules. This is equivalent to specifying -f'+ PATTERN'. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file are ignored, as are whole-line comments that start with ';' or '#' (filename rules that contain those characters are unaffected). If a line begins with "- " (dash, space) or "* " (plus, space), then the type of rule is being explicitly specified as an exclude or an include (respectively). Any rules without such a prefix are taken to be an include. If a line consists of just "!", then the current filter rules are cleared before adding any further rules. If FILE is '-', the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or '-' for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no- d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command- line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a. Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) -r option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. --from0, -0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files- from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). --old-args This option tells rsync to stop trying to protect the arg values on the remote side from unintended word-splitting or other misinterpretation. The default in a modern rsync is for "shell-active" characters (including spaces) to be backslash-escaped in the args that are sent to the remote shell. The wildcard characters *, ?, [, & ] are not escaped in filename args (allowing them to expand into multiple filenames) while being protected in option args, such as --usermap. If you have a script that wants to use old-style arg splitting in its filenames, specify this option once. If the remote shell has a problem with any backslash escapes at all, specify this option twice. You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_OLD_ARGS environment variable. If it has the value "1", rsync will default to a single-option setting. If it has the value "2" (or more), rsync will default to a repeated-option setting. If it is "0", you'll get the default escaping behavior. The environment is always overridden by manually specified positive or negative options (the negative is --no-old-args). Note that this option also disables the extra safety check added in 3.2.5 that ensures that a remote sender isn't including extra top-level items in the file-list that you didn't request. This side-effect is necessary because we can't know for sure what names to expect when the remote shell is interpreting the args. This option conflicts with the --protect-args option. --protect-args, -s This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync instead of the shell doing it. This is similar to the new-style backslash-escaping of args that was added in 3.2.4, but supports some extra features and doesn't rely on backslash escaping in the remote shell. If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote character-set. The translation happens before wild-cards are expanded. See also the --files-from option. You may also control this setting via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable. If it has a non-zero value, this setting will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default. Either state is overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version of this option (note that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions). This environment variable is also superseded by a non-zero RSYNC_OLD_ARGS export. You may need to disable this option when interacting with an older rsync (one prior to 3.0.0). This option conflicts with the --old-args option. Note that this option is incompatible with the use of the restricted rsync script (rrsync) since it hides options from the script's inspection. --trust-sender This option disables two extra validation checks that a local client performs on the file list generated by a remote sender. This option should only be used if you trust the sender to not put something malicious in the file list (something that could possibly be done via a modified rsync, a modified shell, or some other similar manipulation). Normally, the rsync client (as of version 3.2.5) runs two extra validation checks when pulling files from a remote rsync: o It verifies that additional arg items didn't get added at the top of the transfer. o It verifies that none of the items in the file list are names that should have been excluded (if filter rules were specified). Note that various options can turn off one or both of these checks if the option interferes with the validation. For instance: o Using a per-directory filter file reads filter rules that only the server knows about, so the filter checking is disabled. o Using the --old-args option allows the sender to manipulate the requested args, so the arg checking is disabled. o Reading the files-from list from the server side means that the client doesn't know the arg list, so the arg checking is disabled. o Using --read-batch disables both checks since the batch file's contents will have been verified when it was created. This option may help an under-powered client server if the extra pattern matching is slowing things down on a huge transfer. It can also be used to work around a currently-unknown bug in the verification logic for a transfer from a trusted sender. When using this option it is a good idea to specify a dedicated destination directory, as discussed in the MULTI-HOST SECURITY section. --copy-as=USER[:GROUP] This option instructs rsync to use the USER and (if specified after a colon) the GROUP for the copy operations. This only works if the user that is running rsync has the ability to change users. If the group is not specified then the user's default groups are used. This option can help to reduce the risk of an rsync being run as root into or out of a directory that might have live changes happening to it and you want to make sure that root-level read or write actions of system files are not possible. While you could alternatively run all of rsync as the specified user, sometimes you need the root-level host-access credentials to be used, so this allows rsync to drop root for the copying part of the operation after the remote-shell or daemon connection is established. The option only affects one side of the transfer unless the transfer is local, in which case it affects both sides. Use the --remote-option to affect the remote side, such as -M--copy- as=joe. For a local transfer, the lsh (or lsh.sh) support file provides a local-shell helper script that can be used to allow a "localhost:" or "lh:" host-spec to be specified without needing to setup any remote shells, allowing you to specify remote options that affect the side of the transfer that is using the host-spec (and using hostname "lh" avoids the overriding of the remote directory to the user's home dir). For example, the following rsync writes the local files as user "joe": sudo rsync -aiv --copy-as=joe host1:backups/joe/ /home/joe/ This makes all files owned by user "joe", limits the groups to those that are available to that user, and makes it impossible for the joe user to do a timed exploit of the path to induce a change to a file that the joe user has no permissions to change. The following command does a local copy into the "dest/" dir as user "joe" (assuming you've installed support/lsh into a dir on your$PATH):

sudo rsync -aive lsh -M--copy-as=joe src/ lh:dest/

--temp-dir=DIR, -T
This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each
temporary file in the same directory as the associated
destination file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file
names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an
extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added).

This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch
directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
associated destination file, but instead must copy it into
place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
destination file, which means that the destination file will
contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the
data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination
directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new
version on the disk at the same time.

If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-
updates option, which will ensure that all copied files get put
into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
all the arriving files on the destination partition, another way
to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space
is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because
this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single
file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use
the partial-dir as a staging area to bring over the copied file,
and then rename it into place from there. (Specifying a
--partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-
effect.)

--fuzzy, -y
This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm
looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a
similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
to try to speed up the transfer.

If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
any matching alternate destination directories that are
specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination
machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the
destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is
identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred
to the destination directory.  This is useful for creating a
sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier
backup.  This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or
newly created) directory.

Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found
that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the
transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination

NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file
from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is
found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end
result more closely match a fresh copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also
copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory
using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully
transferred.

Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will
cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an
unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination

This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files
must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked
together.  An example:

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/ If files aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option). Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match (there is a limit of 20 such directories). If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists. Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest. Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when --owner (-o) was specified (or implied). You can work- around this bug by avoiding the -o option (or using --no-o) when sending to an old rsync. --compress, -z With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow connection. Rsync supports multiple compression methods and will choose one for you unless you force the choice using the --compress-choice (--zc) option. Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version. When both sides of the transfer are at least 3.2.0, rsync chooses the first algorithm in the client's list of choices that is also in the server's list of choices. If no common compress choice is found, rsync exits with an error. If the remote rsync is too old to support checksum negotiation, its list is assumed to be "zlib". The default order can be customized by setting the environment variable RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST to a space-separated list of acceptable compression names. If the string contains a "&" character, it is separated into the "client string & server string", otherwise the same string applies to both. If the string (or string portion) contains no non-whitespace characters, the default compress list is used. Any unknown compression names are discarded from the list, but a list with only invalid names results in a failed negotiation. There are some older rsync versions that were configured to reject a -z option and require the use of -zz because their compression library was not compatible with the default zlib compression method. You can usually ignore this weirdness unless the rsync server complains and tells you to specify -zz. --compress-choice=STR, --zc=STR This option can be used to override the automatic negotiation of the compression algorithm that occurs when --compress is used. The option implies --compress unless "none" was specified, which instead implies --no-compress. The compression options that you may be able to use are: o zstd o lz4 o zlibx o zlib o none Run rsync --version to see the default compress list compiled into your version (which may differ from the list above). Note that if you see an error about an option named --old- compress or --new-compress, this is rsync trying to send the --compress-choice=zlib or --compress-choice=zlibx option in a backward-compatible manner that more rsync versions understand. This error indicates that the older rsync version on the server will not allow you to force the compression type. Note that the "zlibx" compression algorithm is just the "zlib" algorithm with matched data excluded from the compression stream (to try to make it more compatible with an external zlib implementation). --compress-level=NUM, --zl=NUM Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress, -z) instead of letting it default. The --compress option is implied as long as the level chosen is not a "don't compress" level for the compression algorithm that is in effect (e.g. zlib compression treats level 0 as "off"). The level values vary depending on the checksum in effect. Because rsync will negotiate a checksum choice by default (when the remote rsync is new enough), it can be good to combine this option with a --compress-choice (--zc) option unless you're sure of the choice in effect. For example: rsync -aiv --zc=zstd --zl=22 host:src/ dest/ For zlib & zlibx compression the valid values are from 1 to 9 with 6 being the default. Specifying --zl=0 turns compression off, and specifying --zl=-1 chooses the default level of 6. For zstd compression the valid values are from -131072 to 22 with 3 being the default. Specifying 0 chooses the default of 3. For lz4 compression there are no levels, so the value is always 0. If you specify a too-large or too-small value, the number is silently limited to a valid value. This allows you to specify something like --zl=999999999 and be assured that you'll end up with the maximum compression level no matter what algorithm was chosen. If you want to know the compression level that is in effect, specify --debug=nstr to see the "negotiated string" results. This will report something like "Client compress: zstd (level 3)" (along with the checksum choice in effect). --skip-compress=LIST NOTE: no compression method currently supports per-file compression changes, so this option has no effect. Override the list of file suffixes that will be compressed as little as possible. Rsync sets the compression level on a per- file basis based on the file's suffix. If the compression algorithm has an "off" level, then no compression occurs for those files. Other algorithms that support changing the streaming level on-the-fly will have the level minimized to reduces the CPU usage as much as possible for a matching file. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/). You may specify an empty string to indicate that no files should be skipped. Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning). The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning. Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes): --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2 The default file suffixes in the skip-compress list in this version of rsync are: 3g2 3gp 7z aac ace apk avi bz2 deb dmg ear f4v flac flv gpg gz iso jar jpeg jpg lrz lz lz4 lzma lzo m1a m1v m2a m2ts m2v m4a m4b m4p m4r m4v mka mkv mov mp1 mp2 mp3 mp4 mpa mpeg mpg mpv mts odb odf odg odi odm odp ods odt oga ogg ogm ogv ogx opus otg oth otp ots ott oxt png qt rar rpm rz rzip spx squashfs sxc sxd sxg sxm sxw sz tbz tbz2 tgz tlz ts txz tzo vob war webm webp xz z zip zst This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). --numeric-ids With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends. By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the use chroot setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for some comments on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it. --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side. The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild- card string, which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example: --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option. Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side. Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance: --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different values. For the --usermap option to work, the receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options). For the --groupmap option to work, the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group. Starting with rsync 3.2.4, the --usermap option implies the --owner (-o) option while the --groupmap option implies the --group (-g) option (since rsync needs to have those options enabled for the mapping options to work). An older rsync client may need to use --protect-args (-s) to avoid a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically. --chown=USER:GROUP This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using --usermap & --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options internally so they cannot be mixed. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied. If you specify "--chown=foo:bar", this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier (and with the same implied --owner and/or --group options). An older rsync client may need to use --protect-args (-s) to avoid a complaint about wildcard characters, but a modern rsync handles this automatically. --timeout=SECONDS This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout. --contimeout=SECONDS This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed. If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error. --address=ADDRESS By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also the daemon version of the --address option. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also the daemon version of the --port option. --sockopts=OPTIONS This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the manpage for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon. See also the daemon version of the --sockopts option. --blocking-io This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.) --outbuf=MODE This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full). You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case. The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe. --itemize-changes, -i Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes. This is exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages). The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguaxf, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified. The update types that replace the Y are as follows: o A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent). o A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received). o A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.). o A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links). o A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified). o A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g. "deleting"). The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos). The other letters in the string indicate if some attributes of the file have changed, as follows: o "." - the attribute is unchanged. o "*" - the file is newly created. o " " - all the attributes are unchanged (all dots turn to spaces). o "?" - the change is unknown (when the remote rsync is old). o A letter indicates an attribute is being updated. The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows: o A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files. o A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer. o A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --times). An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.) o A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires --perms). o An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user privileges). o A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to set the group). o o A u|n|b indicates the following information: u means the access (use) time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --atimes) o n means the create time (newness) is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --crtimes) o b means that both the access and create times are being updated o The a means that the ACL information is being changed. o The x means that the extended attribute information is being changed. One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose message). --out-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a text string containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i". Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output). --log-file=FILE This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non- daemon transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this. Here's an example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening: rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/ This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly. See also the daemon version of the --log-file option. --log-file-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the log format setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'. See also the daemon version of the --log-file-format option. --stats This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta- transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options. The current statistics are as follows: o Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list. o Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). o Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were deleted. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x). o Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading. o Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks. o Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files. o Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files. o Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreating the updated files. o File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list. o File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present. o File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver. o Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side. o Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent. --8-bit-output, -8 This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting. The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9). --human-readable, -h Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible levels: 1. output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma). 2. output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below). 3. output numbers in units of 1024. The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifying the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option. The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), T (tera), or P (peta). For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point). Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list-only option for one difference. --partial By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster. --partial-dir=DIR This option modifies the behavior of the --partial option while also implying that it be enabled. This enhanced partial-file method puts any partially transferred files into the specified DIR instead of writing the partial file out to the destination file. On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose. Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir files that are found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm). Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing, but just the last dir -- not the whole path. This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when it is needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted. Note that this directory removal is only done for a relative pathname, as it is expected that an absolute path is to a directory that is reserved for partial-dir work. If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side. An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of this "perishable" exclude at the end of any other filter rules: -f '-p .rsync-partial/' If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because: 1. the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or 2. you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g. -f 'R .rsync- partial/'. Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run. IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk! E.g. AVOID "/tmp"! You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this environment value are: 1. when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and 2. when --delay-updates was specified (see below). When a modern rsync resumes the transfer of a file in the partial-dir, that partial file is now updated in-place instead of creating yet another tmp-file copy (so it maxes out at dest + tmp instead of dest + partial + tmp). This requires both ends of the transfer to be at least version 3.2.0. For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial. This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir. --delay-updates This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named .~tmp~ in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this .~tmp~ dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old .~tmp~ dirs that might be lying around. Conflicts with --inplace and --append. This option implies --no-inc-recursive since it needs the full file list in memory in order to be able to iterate over it at the end. This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless: 1. there is no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute), and 2. there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place). See also the "atomic-rsync" python script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files). --prune-empty-dirs, -m This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules. This option can still leave empty directories on the receiving side if you make use of TRANSFER_RULES. Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this. You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list: --filter 'protect emptydir/' Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude): rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of --include='*/' --exclude='*' would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you). --progress This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. --info=flist0 --progress). While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this: 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04 In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end. These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file. When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this: 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396) In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list. In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list). -P The -P option is equivalent to "--partial --progress". Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted. There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0) if you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.) Finally, you can get an instant progress report by sending rsync a signal of either SIGINFO or SIGVTALRM. On BSD systems, a SIGINFO is generated by typing a Ctrl+T (Linux doesn't currently support a SIGINFO signal). When the client-side process receives one of those signals, it sets a flag to output a single progress report which is output when the current file transfer finishes (so it may take a little time if a big file is being handled when the signal arrives). A filename is output (if needed) followed by the --info=progress2 format of progress info. If you don't know which of the 3 rsync processes is the client process, it's OK to signal all of them (since the non- client processes ignore the signal). CAUTION: sending SIGVTALRM to an older rsync (pre-3.2.0) will kill it. --password-file=FILE This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored). Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non- root-owned file. This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's config file). --early-input=FILE This option allows rsync to send up to 5K of data to the "early exec" script on its stdin. One possible use of this data is to give the script a secret that can be used to mount an encrypted filesystem (which you should unmount in the the "post-xfer exec" script). The daemon must be at least version 3.2.1. --list-only This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: 1. to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or 2. to be able to specify more than one source arg. Note: be sure to include the destination. CAUTION: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to specify a single wild-card arg to try to infer this option. A safe example is: rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/ Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option. By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters. Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option. To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. --bwlimit=1.5m). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of 0 specifies no limit. For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible. Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some burstiness may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance. Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs. This may be fixed in a future version. See also the daemon version of the --bwlimit option. --stop-after=MINS, (--time-limit=MINS) This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified number of minutes has elapsed. For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the connection quits as specified. This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it. You can tell the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise. The --time-limit version of this option is deprecated. --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m This option tells rsync to stop copying when the specified point in time has been reached. The date & time can be fully specified in a numeric format of year-month-dayThour:minute (e.g. 2000-12-31T23:59) in the local timezone. You may choose to separate the date numbers using slashes instead of dashes. The value can also be abbreviated in a variety of ways, such as specifying a 2-digit year and/or leaving off various values. In all cases, the value will be taken to be the next possible point in time where the supplied information matches. If the value specifies the current time or a past time, rsync exits with an error. For example, "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight local time), "14:00" specifies the next 2 P.M., "1" specifies the next 1st of the month at midnight, "31" specifies the next month where we can stop on its 31st day, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the hour. For maximal flexibility, rsync does not communicate this option to the remote rsync since it is usually enough that one side of the connection quits as specified. This allows the option's use even when only one side of the connection supports it. You can tell the remote side about the time limit using --remote-option (-M), should the need arise. Do keep in mind that the remote host may have a different default timezone than your local host. --fsync Cause the receiving side to fsync each finished file. This may slow down the transfer, but can help to provide peace of mind when updating critical files. --write-batch=FILE Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option. This option overrides the negotiated checksum & compress lists and always negotiates a choice based on old-school md5/md4/zlib choices. If you want a more modern choice, use the --checksum- choice (--cc) and/or --compress-choice (--zc) options. --only-write-batch=FILE Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch. This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch. Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening). Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote system because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch). --read-batch=FILE Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch. If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details. --protocol=NUM Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system). --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files. Finally, you can specify either --no- iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion. The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable. For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list". If you specify the --protect-args (-s) option, rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option. Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (including include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer. For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for. When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8). --ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets or running ssh. This affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon, as well as the forwarding of the -4 or -6 option to ssh when rsync can deduce that ssh is being used as the remote shell. For other remote shells you'll need to specify the "--rsh SHELL -4" option directly (or whatever IPv4/IPv6 hint options it uses). See also the daemon version of these options. If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The rsync --version output will contain "no IPv6" if is the case. --checksum-seed=NUM Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed). By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time(). This option is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed. DAEMON OPTIONS The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows: --daemon This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax. If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) manpage for more details. --address=ADDRESS By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the address global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage and the client version of the --address option. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed. See the client version of the --bwlimit option for some extra details. --config=FILE This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only relevant when --daemon is specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically$HOME).

--dparam=OVERRIDE, -M
This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the
first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

--no-detach
When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
listen on rather than the default of 873.

See also the client version of the --port option and the port
global setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file
name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT
string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

--sockopts
This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf
file and has the same syntax.

--verbose, -v
This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the
daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that
the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
config section.

--ipv4, -4 or --ipv6, -6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming
sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for
connections.  One of these options may be required in older
versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is
using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
the daemon).

If rsync was compiled without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
option will have no effect.  The rsync --version output will
contain "no IPv6" if is the case.

--help, -h
When specified after --daemon, print a short help page
describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
The filter rules allow for custom control of several aspects of how
files are handled:

o      Control which files the sending side puts into the file list
that describes the transfer hierarchy

o      Control which files the receiving side protects from deletion
when the file is not in the sender's file list

o      Control which extended attribute names are skipped when copying
xattrs

The rules are either directly specified via option arguments or they
can be read in from one or more files.  The filter-rule files can even
be a part of the hierarchy of files being copied, affecting different
parts of the tree in different ways.

SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE RULES
We will first cover the basics of how include & exclude rules affect
what files are transferred, ignoring any deletion side-effects.  Filter
rules mainly affect the contents of directories that rsync is
"recursing" into, but they can also affect a top-level item in the
transfer that was specified as a argument.

The default for any unmatched file/dir is for it to be included in the
transfer, which puts the file/dir into the sender's file list.  The use
of an exclude rule causes one or more matching files/dirs to be left
out of the sender's file list.  An include rule can be used to limit
the effect of an exclude rule that is matching too many files.

The order of the rules is important because the first rule that matches
is the one that takes effect.  Thus, if an early rule excludes a file,
no include rule that comes after it can have any effect. This means
that you must place any include overrides somewhere prior to the
exclude that it is intended to limit.

When a directory is excluded, all its contents and sub-contents are
also excluded.  The sender doesn't scan through any of it at all, which
can save a lot of time when skipping large unneeded sub-trees.

It is also important to understand that the include/exclude rules are
applied to every file and directory that the sender is recursing into.
Thus, if you want a particular deep file to be included, you have to
make sure that none of the directories that must be traversed on the
way down to that file are excluded or else the file will never be
discovered to be included. As an example, if the directory "a/path" was
given as a transfer argument and you want to ensure that the file
"a/path/down/deep/wanted.txt" is a part of the transfer, then the
sender must not exclude the directories "a/path", "a/path/down", or
"a/path/down/deep" as it makes it way scanning through the file tree.

When you are working on the rules, it can be helpful to ask rsync to
tell you what is being excluded/included and why.  Specifying
--debug=FILTER or (when pulling files) -M--debug=FILTER turns on level
1 of the FILTER debug information that will output a message any time
that a file or directory is included or excluded and which rule it
matched.  Beginning in 3.2.4 it will also warn if a filter rule has
trailing whitespace, since an exclude of "foo " (with a trailing space)
will not exclude a file named "foo".

Exclude and include rules can specify wildcard PATTERN MATCHING RULES
(similar to shell wildcards) that allow you to match things like a file
suffix or a portion of a filename.

A rule can be limited to only affecting a directory by putting a
trailing slash onto the filename.

SIMPLE INCLUDE/EXCLUDE EXAMPLE
With the following file tree created on the sending side:

mkdir x/
touch x/file.txt
mkdir x/y/
touch x/y/file.txt
touch x/y/zzz.txt
mkdir x/z/
touch x/z/file.txt

Then the following rsync command will transfer the file "x/y/file.txt"
and the directories needed to hold it, resulting in the path
"/tmp/x/y/file.txt" existing on the remote host:

rsync -ai -f'+ x/' -f'+ x/y/' -f'+ x/y/file.txt' -f'- *' x host:/tmp/

Aside: this copy could also have been accomplished using the -R option
(though the 2 commands behave differently if deletions are enabled):

rsync -aiR x/y/file.txt host:/tmp/

The following command does not need an include of the "x" directory
because it is not a part of the transfer (note the traililng slash).
Running this command would copy just "/tmp/x/file.txt" because the "y"
and "z" dirs get excluded:

rsync -ai -f'+ file.txt' -f'- *' x/ host:/tmp/x/

This command would omit the zzz.txt file while copying "x" and
everything else it contains:

rsync -ai -f'- zzz.txt' x host:/tmp/

FILTER RULES WHEN DELETING
By default the include & exclude filter rules affect both the sender
(as it creates its file list) and the receiver (as it creates its file
lists for calculating deletions).  If no delete option is in effect,
the receiver skips creating the delete-related file lists.  This two-
sided default can be manually overridden so that you are only
specifying sender rules or receiver rules, as described in the FILTER
RULES IN DEPTH section.

When deleting, an exclude protects a file from being removed on the
receiving side while an include overrides that protection (putting the
file at risk of deletion). The default is for a file to be at risk --
its safety depends on it matching a corresponding file from the sender.

An example of the two-sided exclude effect can be illustrated by the
copying of a C development directory between 2 systems.  When doing a
touch-up copy, you might want to skip copying the built executable and
the .o files (sender hide) so that the receiving side can build their
own and not lose any object files that are already correct (receiver
protect).  For instance:

rsync -ai --del -f'- *.o' -f'- cmd' src host:/dest/

Note that using -f'-p *.o' is even better than -f'- *.o' if there is a
chance that the directory structure may have changed.  The "p" modifier
is discussed in FILTER RULE MODIFIERS.

One final note, if your shell doesn't mind unexpanded wildcards, you
could simplify the typing of the filter options by using an underscore
in place of the space and leaving off the quotes.  For instance,
-f -_*.o -f -_cmd (and similar) could be used instead of the filter
options above.

FILTER RULES IN DEPTH
Rsync supports old-style include/exclude rules and new-style filter
rules.  The older rules are specified using --include and --exclude as
well as the --include-from and --exclude-from. These are limited in
behavior but they don't require a "-" or "+" prefix.  An old-style
exclude rule is turned into a "- name" filter rule (with no modifiers)
and an old-style include rule is turned into a "* name" filter rule
(with no modifiers).

Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
command-line and/or read-in from files.  New style filter rules have
the following syntax:

RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an
underscore (_). Any additional spaces and/or underscores are considered
to be a part of the pattern name.  Here are the available rule
prefixes:

exclude, '-'
specifies an exclude pattern that (by default) is both a hide
and a protect.

include, '+'
specifies an include pattern that (by default) is both a show
and a risk.

merge, '.'
specifies a merge-file on the client side to read for more
rules.

dir-merge, ':'
specifies a per-directory merge-file.  Using this kind of filter
rule requires that you trust the sending side's filter checking,
so it has the side-effect mentioned under the --trust-sender
option.

hide, 'H'
specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
Equivalent to a sender-only exclude, so -f'H foo' could also be
specified as -f'-s foo'.

show, 'S'
files that match the pattern are not hidden. Equivalent to a
sender-only include, so -f'S foo' could also be specified as
-f'+s foo'.

protect, 'P'
specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
Equivalent to a receiver-only exclude, so -f'P foo' could also
be specified as -f'-r foo'.

risk, 'R'
files that match the pattern are not protected. Equivalent to a
receiver-only include, so -f'R foo' could also be specified as
-f'+r foo'.

clear, '!'
clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

When rules are being read from a file (using merge or dir-merge), empty
(filename rules that contain a hash character are unaffected).

Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
rule/pattern each.  To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
the --include-from / --exclude-from options.

PATTERN MATCHING RULES
Most of the rules mentioned above take an argument that specifies what
the rule should match.  If rsync is recursing through a directory
hierarchy, keep in mind that each pattern is matched against the name
of every directory in the descent path as rsync finds the filenames to
send.

The matching rules for the pattern argument take several forms:

o      If a pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing slash) or a
"**" (which can match a slash), then the pattern is matched
against the full pathname, including any leading directories
within the transfer.  If the pattern doesn't contain a (non-
trailing) / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final
component of the filename or pathname. For example, foo means
that the final path component must be "foo" while foo/bar would
match the last 2 elements of the path (as long as both elements
are within the transfer).

o      A pattern that ends with a / only matches a directory, not a

o      A pattern that starts with a / is anchored to the start of the
transfer path instead of the end.  For example, /foo/** or
/foo/bar/** match only leading elements in the path.  If the
rule is read from a per-directory filter file, the transfer path
being matched will begin at the level of the filter file instead
of the top of the transfer.  See the section on ANCHORING
INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

Rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching
by checking if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard
characters: '*', '?', and '[' :

o      a '?' matches any single character except a slash (/).

o      a '*' matches zero or more non-slash characters.

o      a '**' matches zero or more characters, including slashes.

o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or
[[:alpha:]], that must match one character.

o      a trailing *** in the pattern is a shorthand that allows you to
match a directory and all its contents using a single rule.  For
example, specifying "dir_name/***" will match both the
"dir_name" directory (as if "dir_name/" had been specified) and
everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been
specified).

o      a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but it
is only interpreted as an escape character if at least one
wildcard character is present in the match pattern. For
instance, the pattern "foo\bar" matches that single backslash
literally, while the pattern "foo\bar*" would need to be changed
to "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o      Option -f'- *.o' would exclude all filenames ending with .o

o      Option -f'- /foo' would exclude a file (or directory) named foo
in the transfer-root directory

o      Option -f'- foo/' would exclude any directory named foo

o      Option -f'- foo/*/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar
which is at two levels below a directory named foo (if foo is in
the transfer)

o      Option -f'- /foo/**/bar' would exclude any file/dir named bar
that was two or more levels below a top-level directory named
foo (note that /foo/bar is not excluded by this)

o      Options -f'+ */' -f'+ *.c' -f'- *' would include all directories
and .c source files but nothing else

o      Options -f'+ foo/' -f'+ foo/bar.c' -f'- *' would include only
the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be
explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "- *")

FILTER RULE MODIFIERS
The following modifiers are accepted after an include (+) or exclude
(-) rule:

o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
-f'-/ /etc/passwd' would exclude the passwd file any time the
transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and "-/
subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
"subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
pattern fails to match.  For instance, -f'-! */' would exclude
all non-directories.

o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
should follow.

o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it affects what
files are put into the sender's file list.  The default is for a
rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was
specified, in which case default rules become sender-side only.
See also the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate
way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way

o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance,
the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's default rules that exclude
things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will
not prevent a directory that was removed on the source from
being deleted on the destination.

o      An x indicates that a rule affects xattr names in xattr
copy/delete operations (and is thus ignored when matching
file/dir names).  If no xattr-matching rules are specified, a
default xattr filtering rule is used (see the --xattrs option).

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
RULES section above).

There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the
file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-
directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is
the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to
transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the
receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted
(see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

Some examples:

merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
. /etc/rsync/default.rules
dir-merge .per-dir-filter
dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

o      A * specifies that the file should consist of only include
patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
"dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by
subdirectories.

o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace
instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off
comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the
rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two
rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from
the file default to having that modifier set (except for the !
modifier, which would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
.excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path
excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make
all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side.
If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r
modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify
sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the
directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was
used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-
directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher
priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules
are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so
it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got
specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing
rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the
inherited rules for the current merge file.

Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
the dir-merge filter file was found.

Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via
--filter=". file":

merge /home/user/.global-filter
- *.gz
dir-merge .rules
+ *.[ch]
- *.o
- foo*

This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
matches at the root of the transfer).

If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the
parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the
indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter
(see -F):

--filter=': /.rsync-filter'

That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer. (Note: for an
rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
"/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in
"/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the
parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
directory that is a part of the transfer.

If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the
.cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use
this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the
per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting
the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
rules).  For example:

cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
+ foo.o
:C
- *.old
EOT
rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your
rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead
insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g.  "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules
(which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of the
transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to
receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that

Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files
themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e'
modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent
commands:

rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
--delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all
the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete
anything:

rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
--delete host:src/dir /dest

In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after
the per-directory merge rule.

In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
host:src/dir /dest
rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

TRANSFER RULES
In addition to the FILTER RULES that affect the recursive file scans
that generate the file list on the sending and (when deleting)
receiving sides, there are transfer rules. These rules affect which
files the generator decides need to be transferred without the side
effects of an exclude filter rule.  Transfer rules affect only files
and never directories.

Because a transfer rule does not affect what goes into the sender's
(and receiver's) file list, it cannot have any effect on which files
get deleted on the receiving side.  For example, if the file "foo" is
present in the sender's list but its size is such that it is omitted
due to a transfer rule, the receiving side does not request the file.
However, its presence in the file list means that a delete pass will
not remove a matching file named "foo" on the receiving side.  On the
other hand, a server-side exclude (hide) of the file "foo" leaves the
file out of the server's file list, and absent a receiver-side exclude
(protect) the receiver will remove a matching file named "foo" if
deletions are requested.

Given that the files are still in the sender's file list, the --prune-
empty-dirs option will not judge a directory as being empty even if it
contains only files that the transfer rules omitted.

Similarly, a transfer rule does not have any extra effect on which
files are deleted on the receiving side, so setting a maximum file size
for the transfer does not prevent big files from being deleted.

Examples of transfer rules include the default "quick check" algorithm
(which compares size & modify time), the --update option, the --max-
size option, the --ignore-non-existing option, and a few others.

BATCH MODE
Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
identical systems.  Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this
source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the
destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to
store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this
operation against other, identical destination trees.

Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating
multiple destination trees.  Multicast transport protocols can be used
to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,
instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
information stored in the batch file.

For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-
batch option is used: it will be named the same as the batch file with
".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line suitable for
updating a destination tree using the associated batch file.  It can be
executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in
an alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of
the original destination path.  This is useful when the destination
tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the
batch file.

Examples:

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote:
$ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
\$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
/source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
"foo" and "foo.sh".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
with batches:

o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as
desired.

o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get the
right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the
remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so
that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote
machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as
the --exclude-from=- option).

Caveats:

The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the
file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be
attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error
occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated
state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-
have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
--files-from is dropped, and the --filter / --include / --exclude
options are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any
filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
"here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use
this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
--delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
version uses a new implementation.

Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic

By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
"skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

(instead of being noisily ignored), and the default handling is to
recreate them with the same target on the destination.  Note that

their referent, rather than the symlink.

Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using --copy-
unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they point
be omitted by the receiver.  (Note that you must specify or imply

(start with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".." components to
ascend from the top of the transfer.

Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't
mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your
options:

Turn all symlinks into normal files and directories (leaving no
symlinks in the transfer for any other options to affect).

Turn just symlinks to directories into real directories, leaving
all other symlinks to be handled as described below.

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and create all safe

Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

transfer and creates the safe ones.

For the effect of --munge-links, see the discussion in that option's
section.

transfer but instead affects how rsync treats a symlink to a directory
that already exists on the receiving side.  See that option's section
for a warning.

DIAGNOSTICS
Rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
cryptic.  The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
for its transport.  The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat
should be a zero length file.  If you are getting the above error from
rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
data.  Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
(such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-

If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
why each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
o      0 - Success

o      1 - Syntax or usage error

o      2 - Protocol incompatibility

o      3 - Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

o

o      4 - Requested action not supported. Either:

an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
platform that cannot support them

o      an option was specified that is supported by the client
and not by the server

o      5 - Error starting client-server protocol

o      6 - Daemon unable to append to log-file

o      10 - Error in socket I/O

o      11 - Error in file I/O

o      12 - Error in rsync protocol data stream

o      13 - Errors with program diagnostics

o      14 - Error in IPC code

o      20 - Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

o      21 - Some error returned by waitpid()

o      22 - Error allocating core memory buffers

o      23 - Partial transfer due to error

o      24 - Partial transfer due to vanished source files

o      25 - The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

o      30 - Timeout in data send/receive

o      35 - Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CVSIGNORE
The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
patterns in .cvsignore files.  See the --cvs-exclude option for
more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment
variable. First supported in 3.0.0.

RSYNC_OLD_ARGS
Specify a "1" if you want the --old-args option to be enabled by
default, a "2" (or more) if you want it to be enabled in the
repeated-option state, or a "0" to make sure that it is disabled
by default. When this environment variable is set to a non-zero
value, it supersedes the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS variable.

This variable is ignored if --old-args, --no-old-args, or
--protect-args is specified on the command line.

First supported in 3.2.4.

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
that it is disabled by default.

This variable is ignored if --protect-args, --no-protect-args,
or --old-args is specified on the command line.

First supported in 3.1.0.  Starting in 3.2.4, this variable is
ignored if RSYNC_OLD_ARGS is set to a non-zero value.

RSYNC_RSH
This environment variable allows you to override the default
shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line options are
permitted after the command name, just as in the --rsh (-e)
option.

RSYNC_PROXY
This environment variable allows you to redirect your rsync
client to use a web proxy when connecting to an rsync daemon.
You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

This environment variable allows you to set the password for an
rsync daemon connection, which avoids the password prompt.  Note
that this does not supply a password to a remote shell transport
such as ssh (consult its documentation for how to do that).

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
set, the username defaults to "nobody".  If both are set, USER
takes precedence.

RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
This environment variable specifies the directory to use for a
--partial transfer without implying that partial transfers be
enabled.  See the --partial-dir option for full details.

RSYNC_COMPRESS_LIST
This environment variable allows you to customize the
negotiation of the compression algorithm by specifying an
alternate order or a reduced list of names.  Use the command
rsync --version to see the available compression names.  See the
--compress option for full details.

RSYNC_CHECKSUM_LIST
This environment variable allows you to customize the
negotiation of the checksum algorithm by specifying an alternate
order or a reduced list of names.  Use the command
rsync --version to see the available checksum names.  See the
--checksum-choice option for full details.

RSYNC_MAX_ALLOC
This environment variable sets an allocation maximum as if you

RSYNC_PORT
set in its sub-environment when rsync is running the remote
shell in combination with a daemon connection.  This allows a
script such as rsync-ssl to be able to know the port number that
the user specified on the command line.

HOME   This environment variable is used to find the user's default
.cvsignore file.

RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG
This environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set
the program to use when making a daemon connection.  See
CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full details.

RSYNC_SHELL
This environment variable is mainly used in debug setups to set
the program to use to run the program specified by
RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG.  See CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON for full
details.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

rsync-ssl(1), rsyncd.conf(5), rrsync(1)

BUGS
o      Times are transferred as *nix time_t values.

o      When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync
unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-window
option.

o      File permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native
numerical values.

Please report bugs! See the web site at https://rsync.samba.org/.

VERSION
This manpage is current for version 3.2.5 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an
example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used

CREDITS
file COPYING for details.

An rsync web site is available at https://rsync.samba.org/.  The site
includes an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this
manual page.

The rsync github project is https://github.com/WayneD/rsync.

We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by

THANKS
Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my
apologies if I have.

AUTHOR
Rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
Many people have later contributed to it. It is currently maintained by
Wayne Davison.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at
https://lists.samba.org/.

rsync 3.2.5                       14 Aug 2022                         rsync(1)


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