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BUILTIN(1)             DragonFly General Commands Manual            BUILTIN(1)

NAME

builtin, !, %, ., :, @, [, {, }, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break, breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default, dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval, exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts, glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, let, limit, local, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd, printenv, printf, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, return, sched, set, setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch, telltc, termname, test, then, time, times, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask, unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait, where, which, while, wordexp -- shell built-in commands

SYNOPSIS

See the built-in command description in the appropriate shell manual page.

DESCRIPTION

Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the run- ning shell's process. Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands, the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last. If a command specified to the shell contains a slash `/', the shell will not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the speci- fied command matches the name of a builtin command. Thus, while specify- ing ``echo'' causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that support the echo builtin command, specifying ``/bin/echo'' or ``./echo'' does not. While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their oper- ation may be different under each shell which supports them. Below is a table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that sup- port them and whether they exist as standalone utilities. Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here. Consult a shell's manual page for details on the operation its builtin commands. Beware that the sh(1) manual page, at least, calls some of these commands ``built-in commands'' and some of them ``reserved words''. Users of other shells may need to consult an info(1) page or other sources of documentation. Commands marked ``No**'' under External do exist externally, but are implemented as scripts using a builtin command of the same name. Command External csh(1) sh(1) ! No No Yes % No Yes No . No No Yes : No Yes Yes @ No Yes No [ Yes No Yes { No No Yes } No No Yes alias No** Yes Yes alloc No Yes No bg No** Yes Yes bind No No Yes bindkey No Yes No break No Yes Yes breaksw No Yes No builtin No No Yes builtins No Yes No case No Yes Yes cd No** Yes Yes chdir No Yes Yes command No** No Yes complete No Yes No continue No Yes Yes default No Yes No dirs No Yes No do No No Yes done No No Yes echo Yes Yes Yes echotc No Yes No elif No No Yes else No Yes Yes end No Yes No endif No Yes No endsw No Yes No esac No No Yes eval No Yes Yes exec No Yes Yes exit No Yes Yes export No No Yes false Yes No Yes fc No** No Yes fg No** Yes Yes filetest No Yes No fi No No Yes for No No Yes foreach No Yes No getopts No** No Yes glob No Yes No goto No Yes No hash No No Yes hashstat No Yes No history No Yes No hup No Yes No if No Yes Yes jobid No No Yes jobs No** Yes Yes kill Yes Yes Yes let No No Yes limit No Yes No local No No Yes log No Yes No login Yes Yes No logout No Yes No ls-F No Yes No nice Yes Yes No nohup Yes Yes No notify No Yes No onintr No Yes No popd No Yes No printenv Yes Yes No printf Yes No Yes pushd No Yes No pwd Yes No Yes read No** No Yes readonly No No Yes rehash No Yes No repeat No Yes No return No No Yes sched No Yes No set No Yes Yes setenv No Yes No settc No Yes No setty No Yes No setvar No No Yes shift No Yes Yes source No Yes No stop No Yes No suspend No Yes No switch No Yes No telltc No Yes No termname No Yes No test Yes No Yes then No No Yes time Yes Yes No times No No Yes trap No No Yes true Yes No Yes type No No Yes ulimit No No Yes umask No** Yes Yes unalias No** Yes Yes uncomplete No Yes No unhash No Yes No unlimit No Yes No unset No Yes Yes unsetenv No Yes No until No No Yes wait No** Yes Yes where No Yes No which Yes Yes No while No Yes Yes wordexp No No Yes

SEE ALSO

csh(1), echo(1), false(1), info(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1), printenv(1), printf(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)

HISTORY

The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.

AUTHORS

This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn <sheldonh@FreeBSD.org>. DragonFly 3.5 May 18, 2012 DragonFly 3.5 source(n) Tcl Built-In Commands source(n) ______________________________________________________________________________

NAME

source - Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script

SYNOPSIS

source fileName source -encoding encodingName fileName ______________________________________________________________________________

DESCRIPTION

This command takes the contents of the specified file or resource and passes it to the Tcl interpreter as a text script. The return value from source is the return value of the last command executed in the script. If an error occurs in evaluating the contents of the script then the source command will return that error. If a return command is invoked from within the script then the remainder of the file will be skipped and the source command will return normally with the result from the return command. The end-of-file character for files is "\32" (^Z) for all platforms. The source command will read files up to this character. This restriction does not exist for the read or gets commands, allowing for files containing code and data segments (scripted documents). If you require a "^Z" in code for string comparison, you can use "\032" or "\u001a", which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into "^Z". A leading BOM (Byte order mark) contained in the file is ignored for unicode encodings (utf-8, unicode). The -encoding option is used to specify the encoding of the data stored in fileName. When the -encoding option is omitted, the system encoding is assumed.

EXAMPLE

Run the script in the file foo.tcl and then the script in the file bar.tcl: source foo.tcl source bar.tcl Alternatively: foreach scriptFile {foo.tcl bar.tcl} { source $scriptFile }

SEE ALSO

file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n)

KEYWORDS

file, script Tcl source(n)

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