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STAT(1) DragonFly General Commands Manual STAT(1)
stat, readlink -- display file status
stat [-FHLnq] [-f format | -l | -r | -s | -x] [-t timefmt] [file ...]
readlink [-fn] [file ...]
The stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by file.
Read, write, or execute permissions of the named file are not required,
but all directories listed in the pathname leading to the file must be
searchable. If no argument is given, stat displays information about the
file descriptor for standard input.
When invoked as readlink, only the target of the symbolic link is
printed. If the given argument is not a symbolic link and the -f option
is not specified, readlink will print nothing and exit with an error. If
the -f option is specified, the output is canonicalized by following
every symlink in every component of the given path recursively. readlink
will resolve both absolute and relative paths, and return the absolute
pathname corresponding to file. In this case, the argument does not need
to be a symbolic link.
The information displayed is obtained by calling lstat(2) with the given
argument and evaluating the returned structure. The default format
displays the st_dev, st_ino, st_mode, st_nlink, st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev,
st_size, st_atime, st_mtime, st_ctime, st_blksize, st_blocks, and
st_flags fields, in that order.
The options are as follows:
-F As in ls(1), display a slash (`/') immediately after each
pathname that is a directory, an asterisk (`*') after each that
is executable, an at sign (`@') after each symbolic link, a
percent sign (`%') after each whiteout, an equal sign (`=') after
each socket, and a vertical bar (`|') after each that is a FIFO.
The use of -F implies -l.
-H Treat each argument as the hexadecimal representation of an NFS
file handle, and use fhstat(2) instead of lstat(2). This
requires root privileges.
-L Use stat(2) instead of lstat(2). The information reported by
stat will refer to the target of file, if file is a symbolic
link, and not to file itself. If the link is broken or the
target does not exist, fall back on lstat(2) and report
information about the link.
-n Do not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of
-q Suppress failure messages if calls to stat(2) or lstat(2) fail.
When run as readlink, error messages are automatically
Display information using the specified format. See the Formats
section for a description of valid formats.
-l Display output in ls -lT format.
-r Display raw information. That is, for all the fields in the stat
structure, display the raw, numerical value (for example, times
in seconds since the epoch, etc.).
-s Display information in ``shell output'' format, suitable for
-x Display information in a more verbose way as known from some
Display timestamps using the specified format. This format is
passed directly to strftime(3).
Format strings are similar to printf(3) formats in that they start with
%, are then followed by a sequence of formatting characters, and end in a
character that selects the field of the struct stat which is to be
formatted. If the % is immediately followed by one of n, t, %, or @,
then a newline character, a tab character, a percent character, or the
current file number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the
Any of the following optional flags:
# Selects an alternate output form for octal and hexadecimal
output. Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-
zero hexadecimal output will have ``0x'' prepended to it.
* Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is positive or
negative should always be printed. Non-negative numbers are not
usually printed with a sign.
- Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the
0 Sets the fill character for left padding to the `0' character,
instead of a space.
space Reserves a space at the front of non-negative signed output
fields. A `*' overrides a space if both are used.
Then the following fields:
size An optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field
prec An optional precision composed of a decimal point `.' and a
decimal digit string that indicates the maximum string length,
the number of digits to appear after the decimal point in
floating point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear
in numeric output.
fmt An optional output format specifier which is one of D, O, U, X,
F, or S. These represent signed decimal output, octal output,
unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal output, floating point
output, and string output, respectively. Some output formats do
not apply to all fields. Floating point output only applies to
timespec fields (the a, m, and c fields).
The special output specifier S may be used to indicate that the
output, if applicable, should be in string format. May be used
in combination with:
amc Display date in strftime(3) format.
dr Display actual device name.
f Display the flags of file as in ls -lTdo.
gu Display group or user name.
p Display the mode of file as in ls -lTd.
N Displays the name of file.
T Displays the type of file.
Y Insert a `` -> '' into the output. Note that the default
output format for Y is a string, but if specified
explicitly, these four characters are prepended.
sub An optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low). Only
applies to the p, d, r, and T output formats. It can be one of
H ``High'' -- specifies the major number for devices from r
or d, the ``user'' bits for permissions from the string
form of p, the file ``type'' bits from the numeric forms
of p, and the long output form of T.
L ``Low'' -- specifies the minor number for devices from r
or d, the ``other'' bits for permissions from the string
form of p, the ``user'', ``group'', and ``other'' bits
from the numeric forms of p, and the ls -F style output
character for file type when used with T (the use of L
for this is optional).
M ``Middle'' -- specifies the ``group'' bits for
permissions from the string output form of p, or the
``suid'', ``sgid'', and ``sticky'' bits for the numeric
forms of p.
datum A required field specifier, being one of the following:
d Device upon which file resides (st_dev).
i file's inode number (st_ino).
p File type and permissions (st_mode).
l Number of hard links to file (st_nlink).
u, g User ID and group ID of file's owner (st_uid, st_gid).
r Device number for character and block device special
a, m, c
The time file was last accessed or modified, or when the
inode was last changed (st_atime, st_mtime, st_ctime).
z The size of file in bytes (st_size).
b Number of blocks allocated for file (st_blocks).
k Optimal file system I/O operation block size
f User defined flags for file.
v Inode generation number (st_gen).
The following five field specifiers are not drawn directly from
the data in struct stat, but are:
N The name of the file.
R The absolute pathname corresponding to the file.
T The file type, either as in ls -F or in a more
descriptive form if the sub field specifier H is given.
Y The target of a symbolic link.
Z Expands to ``major,minor'' from the rdev field for
character or block special devices and gives size output
for all others.
Only the % and the field specifier are required. Most field specifiers
default to U as an output form, with the exception of p which defaults to
O; a, m, and c which default to D; and Y, T, and N which default to S.
The stat and readlink utilities exit 0 on success, and >0 if an error
If no options are specified, the default format is "%d %i %Sp %l %Su %Sg
%r %z \"%Sa\" \"%Sm\" \"%Sc\" %k %b %#Xf %N".
> stat /tmp/bar
0 78852 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 0 0 "Jul 8 10:26:03 2004" "Jul 8 10:26:03 2004" "Jul 8 10:28:13 2004" 16384 0 0 /tmp/bar
Given a symbolic link ``foo'' that points from /tmp/foo to /, you would
use stat as follows:
> stat -F /tmp/foo
lrwxrwxrwx 1 jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ -> /
> stat -LF /tmp/foo
drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512 Apr 19 10:57:54 2002 /tmp/foo/
To initialize some shell variables, you could use the -s flag as follows:
% eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
% echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
$ eval $(stat -s .profile)
$ echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
In order to get a list of file types including files pointed to if the
file is a symbolic link, you could use the following format:
$ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
/tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
/tmp/output25568: Regular File
/tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /
In order to get a list of the devices, their types and the major and
minor device numbers, formatted with tabs and linebreaks, you could use
the following format:
stat -f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/*
Type: Character Device
Type: Character Device
In order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could
use the following format:
> stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x
In order to determine the three files that have been modified most
recently, you could use the following format:
> stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort -rn | head -3 | cut -f2-
Apr 25 11:47:00 2002 /tmp/blah
Apr 25 10:36:34 2002 /tmp/bar
Apr 24 16:47:35 2002 /tmp/foo
To display a file's modification time:
> stat -f %m /tmp/foo
To display the same modification time in a readable format:
> stat -f %Sm /tmp/foo
Apr 27 11:15:33 2007
To display the same modification time in a readable and sortable format:
> stat -f %Sm -t %Y%m%d%H%M%S /tmp/foo
To display the same in UTC:
$ TZ= stat -f %Sm -t %Y%m%d%H%M%S /tmp/foo
file(1), ls(1), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), printf(3), strftime(3)
The stat utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6 and FreeBSD 4.10.
The stat utility was written by Andrew Brown <atatat@NetBSD.org>. This
man page was written by Jan Schaumann <jschauma@NetBSD.org>.
DragonFly 4.3 February 28, 2016 DragonFly 4.3