DragonFly On-Line Manual Pages
SYSTAT(1) DragonFly General Commands Manual SYSTAT(1)
systat -- display system statistics on a crt
systat [-display] [refresh-interval]
The systat utility displays various system statistics in a screen
oriented fashion using the curses screen display library, ncurses(3).
While systat is running the screen is usually divided into two windows
(an exception is the vmstat and pvmmeter displays which uses the entire
screen). The upper window depicts the current system load average. The
information displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user
commands. The last line on the screen is reserved for user input and
By default systat displays the processes getting the largest percentage
of the processor in the lower window. Other displays show swap space
usage, disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(8)), virtual memory statistics (a
la vmstat(8)), network ``mbuf'' utilization, TCP/IP statistics, and
network connections (a la netstat(1)).
Input is interpreted at two different levels. A ``global'' command
interpreter processes all keyboard input. If this command interpreter
fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to a per-display
command interpreter. This allows each display to have certain display-
Command line options:
-display The - flag expects display to be one of: altqs, icmp,
icmp6, ifstat, iostat, ip, ip6, mbufs, netbw, netstat,
pftop, pigs, pvmmeter, sensors, swap, tcp, or vmstat.
These displays can also be requested interactively
(without the `-') and are described in full detail
refresh-interval The refresh-interval specifies the screen refresh time
interval in seconds. Default is 5 seconds.
Certain characters cause immediate action by systat. These are
^L Refresh the screen.
^G Print the name of the current ``display'' being shown in the
lower window and the refresh interval.
: Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
line typed as a command. While entering a command the
current character erase, word erase, and line kill characters
may be used.
The following commands are interpreted by the ``global'' command
help Print the names of the available displays on the command
load Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes on
the command line.
stop Stop refreshing the screen.
Start (continue) refreshing the screen. If a second,
numeric, argument is provided it is interpreted as a refresh
interval (in seconds). Supplying only a number will set the
refresh interval to this value.
quit Exit systat. (This may be abbreviated to q.)
The available displays are:
pigs Display, in the lower window, those processes resident in
main memory and getting the largest portion of the processor
(the default display). When less than 100% of the processor
is scheduled to user processes, the remaining time is
accounted to the ``idle'' process.
icmp Display, in the lower window, statistics about messages
received and transmitted by the Internet Control Message
Protocol (``ICMP''). The left half of the screen displays
information about received packets, and the right half
displays information regarding transmitted packets.
The icmp display understands two commands: mode and reset.
The mode command is used to select one of four display modes,
given as its argument:
rate Show the rate of change of each value in packets
per second (the default).
delta Show the rate of change of each value in packets
per refresh interval.
since Show the total change of each value since the
display was last reset.
absolute Show the absolute value of each statistic.
The reset command resets the baseline for since mode. The
mode command with no argument will display the current mode
in the command line.
icmp6 This display is like the icmp display, but displays
statistics for IPv6 ICMP.
ip Otherwise identical to the icmp display, except that it
displays IP and UDP statistics.
ip6 Like the ip display, except that it displays IPv6 statistics.
tcp Like icmp, but with TCP statistics.
ifstat Display, in the lower window, statistics about network
throughput on a per-interface basis.
iostat Display, in the lower window, statistics about processor use
and disk throughput. Statistics on processor use appear as
bar graphs of the amount of time executing in user mode
(`user'), in user mode running low priority processes
(`nice'), in system mode (`system'), in interrupt mode
(`interrupt'), and idle (`idle'). Statistics on disk
throughput show, for each drive, megabytes per second,
average number of disk transactions per second, and average
kilobytes of data per transaction. This information may be
displayed as bar graphs or as rows of numbers which scroll
downward. Bar graphs are shown by default.
The following commands are specific to the iostat display;
the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.
numbers Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form.
Values are displayed in numeric columns which
bars Show the disk I/O statistics in bar graph form
kbpt Toggle the display of kilobytes per transaction.
(the default is to not display kilobytes per
sensors Display, in the lower window, the current values of available
hardware sensors, in a format similar to that of sysctl(8).
The following commands are specific to the sensors display;
the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.
type [type ...]
Display only the sensors which match the
specified type. Multiple types may be specified,
separated by spaces. If no types are specified,
all available sensors will be displayed.
Supported values of type are temp, fan, volt,
acvolt, resistance, power, current, watthour,
amphour, indicator, raw, percent, illuminance,
drive, timedelta, and ecc.
match [device ...]
Display only the sensors match the specified
device. Multiple devices may be specified,
separated by spaces. If no devices are
specified, all available sensors will be
displayed. A device type could be specified by
using an asterisk (`*') in the place of the
device unit. For example:
swap Show information about swap space usage on all the swap areas
compiled into the kernel. The first column is the device
name of the partition. The next column is the total space
available in the partition. The `Used' column indicates the
total blocks used so far; the graph shows the percentage of
space in use on each partition. If there are more than one
swap partition in use, a total line is also shown. Areas
known to the kernel, but not in use are shown as not
mbufs Display, in the lower window, the number of mbufs allocated
for particular uses, i.e. data, socket structures, etc.
vmstat Take over the entire display and show a (rather crowded)
compendium of statistics related to virtual memory usage,
process scheduling, device interrupts, system name
translation cacheing, disk I/O etc.
The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the number of
users logged in and the load average over the last one, five,
and fifteen minute intervals.
Below this line are statistics on memory utilization. The
first row (`Active') reports memory usage in bytes only among
active processes, that is processes that have run in the
previous twenty seconds. The second row (`Kernel') reports
memory usage in bytes by the kernel. The third row (`Free ..
i+c+f') shows freeable memory in bytes, which is inactive +
cache + free. I.e. Free i+c+f includes inactive pages, which
aren't quite free, but they will be made free given enough
memory pressure. Finally the last row (`Total') shows total
system memory in bytes. The second column reports on memory
usage of all processes. The first row (`VM-rss') shows bytes
for total RSS. This is basically how many pages the system
is mapping to user processes. Due to sharing this can be a
large value. The second row (`VM-swp') reports on swap,
first swap used in bytes, then, after `/', total swap in
Below the memory display is a list of the average number of
processes (over the last refresh interval) that are runnable
(`r'), in page wait (`p'), in disk wait other than paging
(`d'), sleeping (`s'), and swapped out but desiring to run
(`w'). The row also shows the average number of context
switches (`Csw'), traps (`Trp'; includes page faults), system
calls (`Sys'), interrupts (`Int'), network software
interrupts (`Sof'), and page faults (`Flt').
Below the process queue length listing is a listing of CPU
usage, a numerical listing and a bar graph showing the amount
of system (`='), interrupt (`+'), user (`>'), nice (`-'), and
idle time (` ').
Below the CPU usage display are statistics on name
translations and execs. It lists the number of path names
translated in the previous interval (`Path-lookups'), the
number and percentage of the path lookups that were handled
by the name translation cache, the average number of path
components in path lookups (`Components') and, the number of
execs (execve(2)) per second (`Execs').
At the bottom left is the disk usage display. It reports the
number of kilobytes per transaction (`KB/t'), read
transactions per second (`tpr/s'), megabytes per second in
read transaction (`MBr/s'), write transactions per second
(`tpw/s'), megabytes per second in write transaction
(`MBw/s') and the percentage of the time the disk was busy
(`% busy') averaged over the refresh period of the display
(by default, five seconds). The system keeps statistics on
most every storage device. In general, up to seven devices
are displayed. The devices displayed by default are the
first devices in the kernel's device list. Some devices are
not shown by default, see ignore command below. See
devstat(3) and devstat(9) for details on the devstat system.
If at most 4 disk devices are shown, extended virtual memory
statistics are shown right to disk usage: pages non-optimized
zero filled on demand (`nzfod'), pages optimized zero filled
on demand (`ozfod'), slow (i.e. non-optimized) zero fills
percentage (`%sloz'), total pages freed (`tfree').
Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant are
statistics on paging and swapping activity. The first two
columns (`VN PAGER') report the average number of bytes
brought in and out per second over the last refresh interval
due to page faults and the paging daemon. The third and
fourth columns (`SWAP PAGER') report the average number of
bytes brought in and out per second over the last refresh
interval due to swap requests initiated by the scheduler.
The first row (`bytes') of the display shows the average
number of bytes transferred per second over the last refresh
interval; the second row (`count') of the display shows the
average number of disk transfers per second over the last
refresh interval; this usually matches number of pages
transferred per second over the last refresh interval.
Below the paging statistics is a column of lines regarding
the virtual memory system which list the average number of
bytes in pages zero filled on demand (`zfod') (shown with
extended virtual memory statistics if screen space permits),
bytes in pages copied on write (`cow'), bytes in pages wired
down (`wire'), bytes in active pages (`act'), bytes in
inactive pages (`inact'), bytes in pages on the buffer cache
queue (`cache'), bytes in free pages (`free'), pages freed by
the page daemon (`daefr'), pages freed by exiting processes
(`prcfr'), pages reactivated from the free list (`react'),
times the page daemon was awakened (`pdwak'), pages analyzed
by the page daemon (`pdpgs'), and intransit blocking page
faults (`intrn') per second over the refresh interval.
At the bottom of this column are lines showing the amount of
memory, in bytes, used for the buffer cache (`buf'), number
of dirty buffers in the buffer cache (`dirtybuf'), number of
active vnodes (`activ-vp'), number of cached vnodes (`cachd-
vp'), and number of inactive vnodes (`inact-vp').
Running down the right hand side of the display is a
breakdown of the interrupts being handled by the system
(`Interrupts'). At the top of the list is the total
interrupts per second over the time interval (`total'). The
rest of the column breaks down the total on a device by
device basis. Only devices that have interrupted at least
once since boot time are shown.
The following commands are specific to the vmstat display;
the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.
boot Display cumulative statistics since the system
run Display statistics as a running total from the
point this command is given.
time Display statistics averaged over the refresh
interval (the default).
zero Reset running statistics to zero.
pvmmeter Display total and per CPU statistics, including LAPIC timer
interrupts (`timer'), IPIs (Inter-Processor Interrupts)
(`ipi'), external interrupts (i.e. not timer or ipi)
(`extint'), CPU time breakdown (`user%', `sys%', `intr%', and
`idle%'), SMP collisions (`smpcol'), and name of last
colliding item (`label'). Item can be token(9), lockmgr(9),
mutex(9), or spinlock(9).
netstat Display, in the lower window, network connections. By
default, network servers awaiting requests are not displayed.
Each address is displayed in the format ``host.port'', with
each shown symbolically, when possible. It is possible to
have addresses displayed numerically, limit the display to a
set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum
unambiguous prefix may be supplied):
all Toggle the displaying of server processes
awaiting requests (this is the equivalent of
the -a flag to netstat(1)).
numbers Display network addresses numerically.
names Display network addresses symbolically.
Display only network connections using the
indicated protocol. Supported protocols are
tcp, udp, and all.
Do not display information about connections
associated with the specified hosts or ports.
Hosts and ports may be specified by name
(``vangogh'', ``ftp''), or numerically. Host
addresses use the Internet dot notation
(``220.127.116.11''). Multiple items may be
specified with a single command by separating
them with spaces.
Display information about the connections
associated with the specified hosts or ports.
As for ignore, items may be names or numbers.
show [ports | protos | hosts]
Show, on the command line, the currently
selected protocols, hosts, and ports. Hosts
and ports which are being ignored are prefixed
with a `!'. If ports or hosts is supplied as
an argument to show, then only the requested
information will be displayed.
reset Reset the port, host, and protocol matching
mechanisms to the default (any protocol, port,
netbw Display aggregate and per-connection TCP receive and transmit
rates. Only active TCP connections originated or terminated
by the host are shown.
pftop Display packet filter (pf(4)) state information for states
which are actively passing data. This requires pf(4) to be
active to be meaningful but is capable of displaying
connection state for all packet traffic passing through the
machine, even for connections that do not originate or
terminate on the machine.
You need a wide ~100 column window to display pftop
reasonably well. IPV6 addresses are truncated (just the
first two and last two words are displayed) for brevity.
Generally speaking `rcv' is data received by the first IP
address and `snd' is data sent to the second IP address.
`ttl' is the total sum of data sent plus received tracked by
The display is sorted by average rx+tx bandwidth calculated
on a 1/8 decay curve to prevent fields from jumping around
too much. Units for all rows are selected based on the
largest bandwidth measurement for uniformity. Note that two
states will be present for any connection operating over NAT.
Needs root privilege.
altqs Display packet filter altq statistics. The ALTQ operates in
conjunction with the packet filter (pf) on the interface's
transmit path. Packet rate, data rate in bytes per interval,
drop rate, and queue length is displayed in three separate
sections in a convenient INTERFACE-by-ALTQLABEL matrix.
To save space drops and queue length are combined in the
third section. If packet drops are present, drops will be
displayed, otherwise the packet queue length with a `Q'
suffix will be displayed.
Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to the minimum
unambiguous prefix; for example, ``io'' for ``iostat''. Certain
information may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient for
display. For example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar graph
displays only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal. When a bar graph would
overflow the allotted screen space it is truncated and the actual value
is printed ``over top'' of the bar.
The following commands are common to each display which shows information
about disk drives. These commands are used to select a set of drives to
report on, should your system have more drives configured than can
normally be displayed on the screen.
Do not display information about the drives indicated.
Multiple drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
By default md(4), pass(4), and sg(4) devices are ignored.
This is to save space for other devices which are usually
Display information about the drives indicated. Multiple
drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
Display only the specified drives. Multiple drives may be
specified, separated by spaces.
drives Display a list of available devices.
match type,if,pass [| ...]
Display devices matching the given pattern. The basic
matching expressions are the same as those used in
iostat(8) with one difference. Instead of specifying
multiple -t arguments which are then ORed together, the
user instead specifies multiple matching expressions joined
by the pipe (`|') character. The comma separated arguments
within each matching expression are ANDed together, and
then the pipe separated matching expressions are ORed
together. Any device matching the combined expression will
be displayed, if there is room to display it. For example:
match da,scsi | cd,ide
This will display all SCSI Direct Access devices and all
IDE CDROM devices.
match da | sa | cd,pass
This will display all Direct Access devices, all Sequential
Access devices, and all passthrough devices that provide
access to CDROM drives.
/boot/kernel/kernel For the namelist
/dev/kmem For information in main memory
/etc/hosts For host names
/etc/networks For network names
/etc/services For port names
netstat(1), devstat(3), kvm(3), icmp(4), icmp6(4), ip(4), ip6(4), pf(4),
tcp(4), udp(4), iostat(8), sysctl(8), vmstat(8), devstat(9), lockmgr(9),
mutex(9), spinlock(9), token(9)
The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD. The icmp, ip, and tcp displays
appeared in FreeBSD 3.0; the notion of having different display modes for
the ICMP, IP, TCP, and UDP statistics was stolen from the -C option to
netstat(1) in Silicon Graphics' IRIX system.
Certain displays presume a minimum of 80 characters per line. The vmstat
display looks out of place because it is (it was added in as a separate
display rather than created as a new program).
DragonFly 4.9 October 12, 2017 DragonFly 4.9